Jurnal Teknik Mesin 2023-01-27T03:15:01+00:00 Priyo Heru Adiwibowo, ST, MT Open Journal Systems <p><strong>JURNAL TEKNIK MESIN (JTM)</strong> is media of information and a forum for the study of mechanical engineering.&nbsp; Contains scientific papers, summaries of research results, literature reviews of student of graduate Mechanical Engineering UNESA.</p> STUDI EKSPERIMENTAL PEMBAKARAN BAHAN BAKAR PERTALITE DENGAN CAMPURAN BIOETHANOL DARI LIMBAH BREM TERHADAP KINERJA MESIN SEPEDA MOTOR HONDA PCX 160CC 2023-01-12T05:41:38+00:00 Maria Putri Muhaji Muhaji <p><em>Reserves of fossil energy (fuel oil) are decreasing day by day, while the need continues to increase. The need for fuel can be reduced by making savings and looking for alternative energy sources. One of the renewable and environmentally friendly alternative energy sources to replace fuel is bioethanol. Motor vehicles are expected to always be in high performance. Engine performance may decrease due to use of inappropriate fuel. The purpose of this study was to analyze how much influence pertalite fuel with a mixture of biethanol from brem waste (E0, E10, E20, E30, E40, and E50) had on the performance of the Honda PCX 160cc motorcycle engine (torque, effective power, fuel consumption, and mean effective pressure). Pertalite (E0) and biopertalite (E10, E20, E30, E40, and E50) fuels will be tested to determine the value of torque, power, and fuel consumption at ambient temperature between 15-35ºC, Air humidity between 30%-70% RH and variations in engine speed are 2000 rpm to 9000 rpm with a range of &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1000 rpm. Then calculated the value of the average effective pressure. Engine performance testing using the Full Open Throttel Valve method based on SAE J1349 (Engine Power Test Code-Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition-Net Power Rating). The results of this study indicate that the largest torque value using E50 fuel is 1.41 kgf.m at 6000 rpm engine speed. The highest effective power value uses E50 fuel of 12.2 HP at 7000 rpm engine speed. The lowest fuel consumption uses E50 fuel of 0.08 liters/hour at 3000 rpm engine speed. The largest average effective pressure using E50 fuel is 12.21 kg/cm<sup>2</sup> at 2000 rpm engine speed.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>pertalite, bioethanol, biopertalite, engine performance.</em>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-01-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## DESAIN GENERATOR LINIER UNTUK MEMANEN ENERGI GELOMBANG 2023-01-12T06:37:30+00:00 Putu Kresnadana Aris Ansori <p><em>Indonesia is a country with the fourth largest population in the world. The increasing population makes the demand for electrical energy also increase. In line with the government's policy on the importance of providing electrical energy that comes from clean energy and does not pollute the environment. Then the use of renewable energy is a very appropriate solution, one of the most abundant renewable energies in Indonesia is wave energy. Harvesting wave energy can be done using a Linear Generator. The purpose of this research is to find out how the design and performance of a linear generator in harvesting wave energy. This research was conducted using experimental research methods (experimental research), where the results of the linear generator design will be tested in a simulation pond in order to harvest wave energy. The data analysis technique used is descriptive statistics to describe the research results in the form of tables and graphs. The data from this research is that the maximum output power that can be produced by a linear generator is 0.08885 W at a wave height of 7.73 cm and a wave period of 1.22 s. The maximum wave power produced by the linear generator is 1.064 W. The best performance produced by the linear generator system is 8.3%. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords :</em></strong><em> Harvesting, renewable energy, linear generator, waves.</em></p> 2023-01-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENGARUH RASIO PEREKAT TEPUNG TAPIOKA DAN MESH SERBUK ARANG KULIT BIJI KARET PADA PROSES PEMBUATAN BIOBRIKET KULIT BIJI KARET (Hevea Brasiliensis) 2023-01-13T06:15:30+00:00 Aldy Kurniawan Wayan Susila <p><em>So far, rubber farmers consider rubber seed coats as waste that is just thrown away. The thing that can be done in handling this waste is to make it into bio-briquettes. Biobriquettes are also used as fuel for cooking, industrial fuel, and for power generation. The purpose of this study was to find out the best biobriquette samples from the basic ingredients of rubber seed coat. This research method was carried out in an experimental study, to determine the best composition of biobriquettes from the parameters of calorific value, moisture content, ash content, and volatile matter content with tapioca flour adhesive ratio of 5%, 7%, and 9% and charcoal powder size of 80 mesh and 100 mesh with the raw material of rubber seed coat which is waste from rubber seed which is taken as bio-diesel by previous researchers.The results of the research conducted using the experimental study method yielded the best calorific value at 6952.2cal/gr, the best moisture content at 5.08%, the best ash content at 5.09%, and volatile matter content matter) is the best at 12.6%. From the above results it has been obtained and it can be concluded that the raw material for rubber seed shells and adhesive composition as well as the mesh size of rubber seed shell charcoal powder can meet the parameters of the Indonesian National Standard (SNI No. 01/6235/2000).</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> <em>Rubber Seed Skin, BioBriquettes, Quality of Briquettes</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-01-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENGARUH RASIO MOLAR TERHADAP KUALITAS BIODIESEL DARI BIJI KARET (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS) METODE NON-KATALIS ALIRAN SEMI KONTINU 2023-01-18T03:54:06+00:00 Moch Afandi Wayan Susila <p><em>Motorized vehicles which continue to increase have an impact on increasing the fuel needed. the higher the fuel consumption, the higher the emissions produced, so that more environmentally friendly fuels are needed. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality and yield of biodiesel from rubber seed oil using the non-catalyst method in accordance with the standards set by the Director General of New, Renewable Energy and Energy Conversion Number: 189 K/DJE/2019 with variations in molar ratios of 170, 180, 190 , and 200. The process of making biodiesel includes three stages, namely: the stage of producing rubber seed oil, biodiesel production, and quality testing. This research shows that the molar ratio of 170 is the best variation because it produces the most methyl esters and the least glycerol. Testing the quality of biodiesel from rubber seed oil using a non-catalyzed semi-continuous flow method that meets the standards set by the Director General of New, Renewable Energy and Energy Conversion Number: 189 K/DJE/2019 are: The carbon residue parameter is 0.03% , while the viscosity parameter, cetane number and flash point, are still not fulfilled. The highest yield was obtained at the 170 molar ratio variation of 24.4%.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong><em>: </em></strong><em>rubber seed, biodiesel, non-catalyst, molar ratio</em></p> 2023-01-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ANALISIS CELAH KATUP INTAKE DAN PANJANG INTAKE MANIFOLD TERHADAP PERFORMA MESIN YANMAR L48N6 2023-01-18T05:25:14+00:00 Agam Effendi Agung Budijono <p><em>The purpose of this study was to determine engine performance at various rotational speeds through variations in the intake valve clearance and intake manifold length. To do this, researchers conducted experiments by changing the intake valve clearance and the length of the intake manifold. The dependent variable is specific fuel consumption, torque and power, the fixed variables are Dexlite CN 51 fuel and Yanmar L48N engine. Each test on each variable and engine rotation was carried out 3 times. Variations in the length of the manifold used are standard length (4cm), 10cm, 15cm and 20cm. Variations in the valve clearance used are 0.1mm, 0.1mm and 0.2mm. The results of this study showed that the performance of the Yanmar L48N6 with the greatest torque was produced by a 10cm intake manifold with an inlet valve clearance of 0.1 at 2800 rpm of 15.04 Nm. The biggest power is generated by the intake manifold 10cm valve clearance of 0.15</em><em>mm</em><em>, namely at 3800 rotation of 5.36 kWh. The smallest specific fuel consumption is produced by an intake manifold of 10cm with a valve clearance of 0.1</em><em>mm</em><em> at 3300 rotation of 261.87 g/kWh. It can be concluded that variations in intake manifold length and valve clearance affect the performance of the Yanmar L48N6 engine. The intake manifold length of 10cm produces the lowest BSFC compared to the standard intake manifold and the intake valve clearance setting of 0.1</em><em>mm</em><em> produces the lowest BSFC.</em><em>&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong><em>K</em></strong><strong><em>eywords</em></strong><strong><em>: </em></strong><em>Intake Manifold Length, Intake Valve Clearance, Diesel Engine L48N6, KMHE.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-01-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENGARUH VOLUME BERAT ADSORBEN DAUN BAMBU DALAM PROSES ADSORPSI TERHADAP KUALITAS PEMURNIAN GLISEROL DARI HASIL SAMPING BIODIESEL BIJI KARET (Hevea Brasiliensis) 2023-01-26T07:14:52+00:00 Dany Muhammad Wayan Susila <p><em>Glycerol is produced in large quantities as a waste or by-product of biodiesel production through the transesterification process. The level of purity of glycerol is still low because it contains a lot of impurities and its use is very limited if no purification process is carried out. Thus, purification of glycerol is necessary to remove impurities. This study aims to determine the best condition of the weight percent (wt) of the adsorbent to produce the highest levels of glycerol purity. Crude glycerol was first acidified with hydrochloric acid (HCl) at 70℃ for 1 hour with a mole ratio (n/n) of acid added 1:1. Then proceed with adsorption using adsorbents from bamboo leaves which have been calcined at 600℃ for 2 hours with a ratio of weight percent (% wt) of adsorbent added 12%, 14%, 16%, 18% and 20%. Crude Glycerol and purified glycerol were analyzed for glycerol content, moisture content, ash content, density, and MONG content.Crude glycerol used has a glycerol content of 35.86%. After carrying out a series of purification processes, the optimum conditions were obtained at a weight ratio (%wt) of adsorbent of 20% which xi produced the highest purity with a glycerol content of 52.23%, water content of 21.9%, ash content of 0.064%, density of 1.253 gr/ml , and MONG (Matter Organic Non Glycerol) content of 25.804%</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong><em>:</em></strong> <em>crude glycerol, acidified, adsorbent bamboo leaves, adsorption.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-01-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENGARUH JUMLAH LILITAN PIPA KONDENSOR TERHADAP KUANTITAS MINYAK PIROLISIS SAMPAH PLASTIK 2023-01-26T13:03:59+00:00 Made Yasa Indra Siregar <p><em>The large use of plastic in everyday life will certainly have an impact on the environment. One of the methods of processing this plastic waste is by pyrolysis method. In the pyrolysis process there is a condensation process. The condensation process is a process where when saturated steam comes into contact with a surface with a low temperature, there will be a process of heat release from a system that causes the vapor to turn into liquid. The component in charge of this condensation process is referred to as a condenser. The geometric shape of the condenser will affect the heat transfer process that occurs in the condenser. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the number of windings in the condenser pipe on the effectiveness of the condenser, distillation efficiency, technical efficiency as well as the quantity of oil produced during the pyrolysis process. This study uses an experimental method where this research will later vary the number of windings of condenser pipes with the number of windings of 5, the number of windings of 7 and the number of windings of 10 to determine the value of condenser effectiveness, distillation efficiency, technical efficiency and quantity of oil produced from each variation and which variation is more optimal The highest oil yield is found in variiation 3 with a total of 10 windings, which is 148 grams, while in variations 1 and 2, each of them only gets 75 grams and 110 grams of oil. The effectiveness of the condenser also increases along with the increase in the number of windings in the condenser pipe, namely for variation 1 by 16%, variation 2 by 62% and variation 3 by 76%. In addition, Distillation efficiency and technical efficiency also increase as the number of windings in the condenser pipe increases. The most results were obtained in variation 3 with the number of windings of 10 with a distillation efficiency of 90% and a technical efficiency of 12%.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><strong><em>Keywords :</em></strong><em> Plastic, Condenser, number of pipe windings, pyrolysis oil</em></p> 2023-01-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## UJI KINERJA MESIN 4 LANGKAH DENGAN BAHAN BAKAR CAMPURAN BIOETANOL DARI LIMBAH UMBI BATANG PISANG RAJA DAN PERTALITE 2023-01-26T15:24:17+00:00 Eko Setiawan Muhaji Muhaji <p><em>In the era of globalization, the development of the automotive world is increasing in terms of the quality and sophistication of vehicle engines. Meanwhile, the fuel used is running low. Therefore it needs alternative fuel sources such as bioethanol. Bioethanol can be used as a substitute fuel or can be used as a fuel mixture. The purpose of this study is to analyze how much influence bioethanol fuel from plantain tuber waste and pertalite (E0, E10, E20, E30, E40 and E50) has on the performance (torque, effective power, mean effective pressure and fuel consumption) in engines of Honda Vario 2019.This study uses experimental methods with variable fuel-free pertalite and biopertalite. The bound variable is the performance of the motorcycle engine. While the variable control is the Honda Vario 2019 motorcycle in a standard state with a variation in engine rotation of 2000–9000 rpm with a range of 500 rpm and air humidity of 30.6%. This study uses the method of changing speed testing on fully open valves guided by the SAE J1349 standard and for fuel consumption testing guided by SNI 7554:2010. The analytical techniques used for this study are quantitative and qualitative descriptive statistics. Bioethanol characteristics with a content of 99.66% at a fuel calorific value of 7280.50 kcal/l, fuel density of 828.60 kg/m<sup>3</sup>, fuel viscosity of 1.14 Cps and a flash point of 10.90 <sup>0</sup>C. The highest test results obtained were on biopertalite E50 fuel with a torque yield of 1.09 kgf.m at 4500 rpm, effective power of 9.37 HP at 7500 rpm, mean effective pressure of 110577.89 kg.m<sup>-2</sup> at 5000 rpm and the lowest result of fuel consumption of 0.878 liters/hour at 9000 revolutions on biopertalite E30 but in the average use of motor users on the biopertalite E10 of 0.567 liters/hour at 6000 rpm.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong><em>bioethanol, biopertalite, performance machine</em></p> 2023-01-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN FLAME PASSAGE COVER PADA REAKTOR PIROLISIS TERHADAP PROSES PIROLISIS SAMPAH PLASTIK 2023-01-27T03:15:01+00:00 Anggi Prasetyo Indra Siregar <p><em>Plastic is one type of material that is quite common in everyday life. Many people benefit from the function of plastic itself in various fields such as the food packaging industry, household furniture, and so on. This resulted in the accumulation of industrial waste in the form of garbage. The accumulation of plastic waste is a big problem due to the nature of the plastic itself which is difficult to decompose. Pyrolysis is a method of processing plastic waste as a solution to reduce plastic waste by converting the waste into fuel oil. One of the problems of the pyrolysis method is the low heating rate of the pyrolysis reactor which in turn affects the efficiency of using the method. Therefore, researchers conducted research on the addition of flame passage covers to optimize the heating rate in pyrolysis reactors so that the pyrolysis process can work optimally. The method used in this study is a type of experimental research (experimental research). By looking for a causal relationship from the addition of a flame passage cover to the heat distribution of the reactor, product quantity (char, oil, and uncondensable gas), and pyrolysis reactor performance (used stove power, distillation efficiency, and technical efficiency of the pyrolysis process). The addition of the flame passage cover affects the heat distribution of the pyrolysis reactor, increases the average reactor temperature, and reduces the temperature difference at each reactor point. This can improve the technical efficiency of the pyrolysis process of plastic waste as indicated by the highest percentage difference in technical efficiency at a temperature variation of 350⁰C, which is 3.92% without using a flame passage cover and 5.98% using a flame passage cover.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><em>Keywords: pyrolysis, plastic waste, reactor, flame passage cover, heat distribution.</em></p> 2023-01-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENGARUH SUHU DAN WAKTU KALSINASI TERHADAP KEMURNIAN HIDROKSIAPATIT BERBASIS CANGKANG KERANG HIJAU UNTUK APLIKASI PADA BONE TISSUE ENGINEERING 2023-01-09T07:08:00+00:00 Cerwin Rachmantio Mochammad Arif Irfai <p>Abstrak <br>Hidroksiapatit merupakan material biokeramik berbasis kalsium fosfat dengan rumus kimia Ca₁₀(PO₄)₆(OH)₂ yang<br>digunakan sebagai sel perancah. Hidroksiapatit sintetik yang umum digunakan masih harus di import dan memiliki harga<br>yang mahal, Di Indonesia harga jual hidroksiapatit mencapai 1,5 Juta per 5 miligram. Komposit hidroksiapatit bisa<br>didapatkan menggunakan sumber-sumber kalsium sintetik dan alami cangkang kerang hijau Untuk mendapatkan<br>hidroksiapatit dapat dilakukan dengan metode, di antaranya metode pengendapan basah. Hidroksiapatit sintetis harus<br>melalui proses kalsinasi, suhu dan waktu kalsinasi sangat berpengaruh terhadap kualitas hidroksiapatit sintesis. Pada<br>penelitian ini hidroksiapatit dilakukan proses kalsinasi pada suhu 800°C Selama 4,5 jam, 5,5 jam, dan 6,5 jam dan sintesis<br>hidroksiapatit dilakukan metode pengendapan basah atau presipitasi akan menghasilkan hidroksiapatit dengan tingkat<br>kemurnian yang cukup tinggi. Hasil sintesis kemudian akan dilakukan karakterisasi menggunakan X-Ray Diffractometer<br>(XRD) sehingga dapat diketahui fasanya dan Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) untuk diuji penentuan morfologinya.<br>HA Hasil dari uji XRD menunjukan hasil yang sama dengan hasil JCPDS no 09-0432 dimana dari ketiga sampel serbuk<br>cangkang kerang hijau yang mempunyai intensitas kemurnian paling tinggi sampel variasi waktu 6,5 jam dengan sudut<br>2Theta 18,340, 29,630, 34,520. Sampel variasi 6,5 jam merupakan kondisi terbaik karena menghasilkan HA dengan<br>kristalinitas 95,54%, parameter kisi, dan kemurnian 81,71% yang tinggi. Dari foto SEM memperlihatkan morfologi<br>seperti granul dengan butir yang beragam, namun memiliki permukaan yang kasar. Dimana di variasi serbuk 6,5 jam<br>lebih cenderung terjadi granul yang lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan sampel yang lain dikarenakan variasi waktu saat<br>kalsinasi mempengaruhi kristalisasi dan bentuk morfologi. <br>Kata Kunci: Hidroksiapatit, Kalsinasi, Cangkang Kerang Hijau, Metode Presipitasi.</p> 2023-01-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENGARUH VARIASI MEDIA PENDINGIN DALAM PROSES PWHT PENGELASAN SMAW UNTUK MATERIAL BAJA SS400 TERHADAP NILAI KEKERASAN DAN KEKUATAN TARIK 2023-01-09T12:54:10+00:00 Canggih Wahyunanta Novi Sukma Drastiawati <p>Abstrak <br>Baja Mild Steel merupakan bahan utama pembuatan Arm Engine sepeda motor. Dalam proses produksi Arm Engine<br>diperlukan proses pengelasan. Pada proses pengelasan Arm engine, menyebabkan tegangan sisa dan perubahan sifat<br>mekanik dari material. Untuk memperbaiki sifat mekanik dari proses pengelasan dapat dilakukan PWHT (Post Welding<br>Heat Treatment). Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen dengan variasi media pendingin dalam PWHT setelah<br>proses pengelasan SMAW pada material baja SS400. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa variasi media<br>pendinginan berefek pada nilai kekerasan dan kekuatan tarik. Sehingga proses PWHT dengan suhu 900°C dengan<br>penahanan 10 menit menyebabkan nilai kekerasan dan kekuatan tarik mengalami penurunan. Media pendingin pasir<br>sungai memiliki nilai kekerasan terendah yaitu sebesar 98.3 HRB untuk area weld metal, 97.1 HRB pada area HAZ, 95.4<br>pada area base metal. Sedangkan untuk nilai kekuatan tarik paling besar dalam proses PWHT yaitu variasi media<br>pendingin pasir pantai dengan nilai 413.93 Mpa dan regangan 33%.<br>Kata kunci: Baja SS400, PWHT, Uji Kekerasan, Uji Tarik, Arm Engine.</p> 2023-01-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENGARUH SUHU DAN WAKTU KALSINASI TERHADAP KEMURNIAN HIDROKSIAPATIT BERBASIS TULANG AYAM DENGAN METODE PRESIPITASI 2023-01-10T08:40:43+00:00 Aditya Islamillennio Mochamad Arif Irfa’i <p>Abstrak <br>Hidroksiapatit merupakan material biokeramik berbasis kalsium fosfat dengan rumus kimia Ca₁₀(PO₄)₆(OH)₂ yang<br>digunakan sebagai sel scaffold. Pada penelitian kali ini menggunakan metode pengendapan basah dan sumber kalsium<br>yang akan digunakan adalah tulang ayam. Hidroksiapatit sintetis harus melalui proses kalsinasi, dimana suhu dan waktu<br>kalsinasi sangat berpengaruh terhadap kualitas hidroksiapatit sintesis. Pada penelitian ini hidroksiapatit dilakukan<br>proses kalsinasi pada suhu 800°C dan 1000°C selama 5 dan 6 jam. Hasil sintesis kemudian akan dilakukan karakterisasi<br>menggunakan X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) sehingga dapat diketahui fasanya dan Scanning Electron Microscope<br>(SEM) untuk diuji penentuan morfologinya. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan nilai kemurnian tertinggi terdapat<br>pada sampel serbuk tulang ayam yang mengalami proses kalsinasi pada suhu 1000°C selama 6 jam sebesar 81.68%<br>sedangkan nilai kemurnian terendah terdapat pada sampel serbuk tulang ayam yang mengalami proses kalsinasi pada<br>suhu 800°C selama 5 jam sebesar 79.74%.<br>Kata Kunci: Hidroksiapatit, Kalsinasi, Presipitasi, Tulang Ayam.</p> 2023-01-10T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENGARUH SUHU DAN WAKTU KALSINASI TERHADAP KEMURNIAN HIDROKSIAPATIT BERBASIS TULANG SAPI DENGAN METODE PRESIPITASI 2023-01-09T07:37:56+00:00 Yoppy Pratama Mochamad Arif Irfa’i <p>Abstrak <br>Ca₁₀(PO₄)₆(OH)₂ adalah rumus kimia dari hidroksiapatit yang merupakan biokeramik berlandas kalsium fosfat.<br>Komposit hidroksiapatit dapat diperoleh dari material kalsium sintetik dan alami seperti pada tulang sapi. Untuk<br>mendapatkan hidroksiapatit tulang sapi harus diberikan perlakuan kalsinasi atau pemanasan agar ion karbonat dapat<br>dihilangkan sehingga tidak mengganggu proses sintesis. Pada penelitian ini hidroksiapatit mendapatkan perlakuan<br>kalsinasi pada suhu 900°C dan 1000°C dengan lama waktu 5 dan 6 jam lalu dilakukan metode presipitasi untuk proses<br>sintesis hidroksiapatit karena memiliki banyak keunggulan. Hasil sintesis kemudian akan dilakukan karakterisasi<br>menggunakan X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) sehingga dapat diketahui fasanya dan Scanning Electron Microscope<br>(SEM) untuk diuji penentuan morfologinya. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan nilai kemurnian tertinggi terdapat<br>pada sampel serbuk tulang sapi yang mengalami perlakuan pemanasan pada suhu 900°C dengan lama waktu 6 jam<br>sebesar 85.21% dan 1000°C selama 6 jam sebesar 85.84%, sedangkan nilai kemurnian terendah terdapat pada sampel<br>serbuk tulang sapi yang mengalami proses pemanasan pada suhu 1000°C dengan lama waktu 5 jam sebesar 79.86%.<br>Kata Kunci: Hidroksiapatit, Kalsinasi, Tulang Sapi, Metode Presipitasi.</p> 2023-01-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##