Jurnal Teknik Mesin https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtm-unesa <p><strong>JURNAL TEKNIK MESIN (JTM)</strong> is media of information and a forum for the study of mechanical engineering.&nbsp; Contains scientific papers, summaries of research results, literature reviews of student of graduate Mechanical Engineering UNESA.</p> en-US jtm_ft_unesa@yahoo.co.id (Priyo Heru Adiwibowo, ST, MT) nurainisusanti29@gmail.com (Nur Aini Susanti, S.Pd., M.Pd) Sat, 23 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 UJI STATIS DAN UJI DINAMIS MESIN DIESEL BERBAHAN BAKAR CAMPURAN MINYAK BIJI KARET (HEVEA BRASILIENSIS) DAN SOLAR https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtm-unesa/article/view/57182 <p><em>petroleum fuel is predicted to run out if used continuously. One of the renewable energy sources that is an alternative fuel is biodiesel. More than 30 kinds of plants in Indonesia can produce vegetable oil. One of the potential sources is rubber seed oil as a diesel fuel blend. The researcher had the idea to conduct a performance test on the use of biodiesel for a Jeep Willys brand motorized vehicle with Mitshubishi 4DR5 engine using biodiesel based on rubber seed oil. The composition of the mixture used is B30, B40, and B50.</em></p> <p><em>The type of research used includes experimental method research. In this research, experimental testing of diesel fuel + biodiesel blends from rubber seed oil will be carried out and continued with dynotest and road show tests on diesel vehicles. The test variables used in this research are B30, B40, and B50 fuel blends. Then the performance test carried out to determine the performance of the results of this biodiesel fuel mixture is using the dynotest test and roadshow test or can be called a road test.</em></p> <p><em>The lowest power value was obtained in the pure diesel test variable of 36.5 HP. Then the highest power value was obtained in the B40 and B50 test variables of 37.5 HP. B30 has a lower power of about 0.8% compared to B40 and B50. The lowest torque value was obtained in the B50 fuel testing variable. Then the highest torque value was obtained in the B40 fuel testing variable. B30 has a lower torque value of 2.3% compared to B40. In the -1st dynamic test during the day, diesel fuel spent 1 liter of fuel can travel 8.8 Km, B40 fuel spent 1 liter of fuel can travel 9.5 Km. In the 2nd test during the day, diesel fuel spent 1 liter can travel along 8.7 Km, B40 fuel spent 1 liter of fuel can travel along 9.3 Km. In the -1st night test, diesel fuel consumes 1 liter of fuel can travel a distance of 8.5 Km, while B40 fuel consumes 1 liter of fuel can travel a distance of 8.7 Km. In the 2nd test at night, diesel fuel spent 1 liter of fuel can travel a distance of 8.6 Km, while the B40 fuel spent 1 liter of fuel can travel a distance of 9.0 Km.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Rubber</em> <em>Seed Biodiesel, Performance Test, Dynotest Test, Roadshow Test.</em></p> Muhammad Widyabadra, Wayan Susila ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtm-unesa/article/view/57182 Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PEMBUATAN DAN UJI KARAKTERISTIK BIOETANOL DARI BERAS KETAN PUTIH DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN RAGI (SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE) https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtm-unesa/article/view/57534 <p><em>The availability of fossil fuels is decreasing while the growth of vehicles is increasing, so renewable fuel is needed as a substitute or mixture of gasoline. One,source,of,raw,materials,that,can,be,used,for bioethanol is,white glutinous rice. In this research, making bioethanol is the same as making tapai sticky rice in general, but in the yeast feeding process a variation of urea is added as additional nutrition for the yeast/microbes. The,aim,of,this,research was,to,analyze,the effect,of,urea levels (20 grams, 22.5 grams and 25 grams) on ethanol levels, characteristic tests and the economic feasibility of bioethanol. This research is using experimental method. Fermentation was carried out for 4 days and 5 levels of distillation at a temperature of 78°C with a 70 mesh size zeolite rock adsorbent weighing 7 grams at level 3, 4 and 5 distillation. Testing the carbohydrate content of white sticky rice using the luff school method had a value of 72 .53%. The,results,of,the research showed,that,the,optimal urea content was obtained by adding 25 grams of urea fertilizer to obtain the most optimal urea content by producing the highest yield and ethanol content, namely 11.8% and 48%.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: glutinous rice, fermentation, distillation, characteristics of bioethanol.</em></strong></p> Riza Maulana, Muhaji Muhaji ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtm-unesa/article/view/57534 Sat, 23 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PENGARUH CAMPURAN BAHAN BAKAR PERTALITE DAN BIOETANOL BERAS KETAN PUTIH (ORYZA SATIVA GLUTINOSA) TERHADAP KINERJA MESIN YAMAHA NMAX 155CC 2019 https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtm-unesa/article/view/57591 <p><em>The need for fuel oil is currently increasing along with the continued increase in transportation vehicles. Alternative energy, one of which is Bioethanol, is considered suitable for use as a fuel oil blend. The aim of this research is to carry out an in-depth analysis of the effect of using bioethanol from white glutinous rice on engine performance (thermal efficiency, torque, average effective pressure, power and fuel consumption) of the 2019 Yamaha Nmax 155cc motorbike. This type of experiment is applied in this research. As the object, researchers used a 2019 Yamaha Nmax 155cc motorbike. The engine performance test instruments were a chassis dynamometer, fuel flow meter, stopwatch and digital tachometer. Then the fuel used is pertalite (E0) and biopertalite (E10, E20, E30, E40, E50, E60). Testing was carried out starting with engine speed from 3000 - 9000 rpm using 1000 rpm intervals. The test method uses a full open throttle valve referring to SAE J1349. Testing of fuel characteristics refers to ASTM (density D1298, viscosity D445, and flash point D39) and the heating value is guided by IKA/LEL-ITS/BK. The results of testing the characteristics (density, viscosity and flash point) of fuel increase as the bioethanol concentration increases, but the heating value of the fuel decreases as the bioethanol concentration increases. Meanwhile, the engine performance test results show that the E50 has the biggest impact. This is proven by the torque of 12.05 Nm at 6000 rpm engine speed, for power efficiency of 12.1 HP at 8000 rpm engine speed, average effective pressure of 11.06 kgf/cm2 at 5000 rpm engine speed, fuel consumption rate of 0.52 liters/hour at engine speed of 3000 rpm, and thermal efficiency of 30.78% at 5000 rpm.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong><em>: </em></strong><em>white glutinous rice, bioethanol, pertalite, engine performance</em></p> Jonas Siahaan, Muhaji Muhaji ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtm-unesa/article/view/57591 Wed, 29 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PENGARUH CAMPURAN PERTALITE DENGAN BIOETANOL NIRA SIWALAN (BORASSUS FLABELLIFER LINNAEUS) TERHADAP KADAR EMISI GAS BUANG SEPEDA MOTOR YAMAHA AEROX 2019 155CC https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtm-unesa/article/view/57602 <p><em>The improvement of mechanized vehicles in Indonesia generally builds consistently bringing about expanded utilization of petroleum products. This affects air contamination and is a difficult issue for the climate and human wellbeing. Issues like this require the job of each and every country to track down sustainable elective energy as a combination of petroleum products. Bioethanol is an elective fuel utilized as a combination of non-renewable energy sources. The point of this examination is to break down the impact of pertalite (E0) and a combination of pertalite with bioethanol palm sap (E10, E20, E30, E40, E50 and E60) on the 2019 Yamaha Aerox 155cc motorbike on the degrees of carbon monoxide (CO) exhaust discharges, hydrocarbons (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2). The research using is experimental research. This research utilizes a 2019 Yamaha Aerox 155cc motorbike as per industry standard. The fuel utilized is pertalite (E0) and a combination of pertalite and siwalan sap bioethanol</em><em>0</em><em>(E10, E20, E30, E40, E50 and E60). Testing fumes gas outflow levels (O2, CO, CO2, HC) is directed by SNI 19-7118.3-2005 utilizing the speed change technique from fixed (inactive condition) to fast (1500 rpm-8500 rpm). The data analysis used in this research is a quantitative descriptive method. The fumes gas emission test results showed that the best blend was E50 fuel with a typical decrease in CO discharge levels of 32%, HC outflow levels of 31%, CO2 discharge levels expanded by 31%, while for O2 emanation levels the best fuel was E10. with a typical abatement of 20%. So it tends to be inferred that the combination of pertalite with Siwalan palm sap bioethanol (E50) can lessen CO, HC, O2 fumes gas emanation levels and increment CO2 fumes gas outflow levels contrasted with unadulterated pertalite fuel (E0).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><strong><em>: </em></strong><em>bioethanol. pertalite, biopertalite, siwalan palm, exhaust gas emission</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Syairozy Ismatullah, Muhaji Muhaji ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtm-unesa/article/view/57602 Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 STUDI TEMPERATUR HIDROTERMAL PADA SINTESIS HIDROKSIAPATIT YANG BERASAL DARI TULANG SAPI UNTUK APLIKASI BIOMATERIAL https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtm-unesa/article/view/57119 <p>Hidroksiapatit merupakan material anorganik yang didalam sistem kristalnya terbentuk dari kalsium dan fosfor atau juga<br>bisa disebut dengan kalsium fosfat. Hidroksiapatit ini memiliki rumus kimia Ca<sub>10</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>6</sub>OH<sub>2</sub>. Pada penelitian kali ini akan<br>menggunakan bahan dari tulang sapi sebagai sumber kalsium untuk mendapatkan hidroksiapatit. Metode yang digunakan<br>untuk sintesis hidroksiapatit adalah hidrotermal dengan memvariasikan suhu. Variasi suhu yang digunakan adalah sebesar<br>60℃, 80℃, 100℃, dan 120℃. Kemudian hasil sintesis hidroksiapatit akan dilakukan karakterisasi menggunakan X-Ray<br>Diffraction (XRD) untuk mendapatkan hasil kemurnin dan kristalinitasnya, dan Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)<br>untuk mendapatkan hasil morfologinya. Pada penelitian kali ini dapatkan hasil presentase kermurnian dan kristalinitas<br>tertinggi ada pada suhu 100℃ yaitu sebesar 88,69% untuk nilai kemurniannya dan 78,50% untuk nilai kristalinitasnya.<br>Kemudian mendapatkan presentase kemurnian dan kristalinitas terendah pada suhu 60℃ yaitu sebesar 87,52% untuk<br>kemurniannya dan 77,16% untuk kristalinitasnya. Pada penelitian kali ini mendapatkan bentuk morfologi yang berbentuk<br>bulat bola dengan seiring meningkatnya suhu hidrotermal. Bentuk morfologi bulat bola paling baik terdapat pada suhu<br>100℃ dan struktur kerapatan antar partikel paling rapat didapatkan pada suhu 60℃ <br>Kata Kunci: Tulang Sapi, Kalsinasi,, Hidrotermal, Hidroksiapatit.</p> Angga Bagas Wijanarko, Mochamad Arif Irfa’i ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtm-unesa/article/view/57119 Sat, 23 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PENGARUH VARIASI ARUS PENGELASAN FCAW BAJA ASTM A36 TERHADAP KEKERASAN https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtm-unesa/article/view/57127 <p>Abstrak <br>Baja astm a36 adalah baja karbon rendah dan banyak digunakan pada proses pembuatan industri besar, seperti kapal, rel<br>kereta api, dan kontruksi manufaktur. Adapun fcaw adalah metode sambungan las yang lebih efektif dan sering<br>digunakan pada industri besar, karena tidak perlu sering mengganti kawat las, elektroda kawat berbentuk gulungan yang<br>panjang. Pada proses sambungan lambung kapal diwajibkan tukang las menyambungkan material dengan baik,<br>pemilihan metode las dan parameter masukan harus diperhatikan sebelum proses pengelasan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini<br>adalah mengetahui variasi arus terbaik yang ditinjuai dari kekuatan kekerasan pada hasil pengelasan fcaw baja astm a36.<br>Variasi arus yang digunakan meliputi 100A, 120A, dan 140A. Adapun hasil kekerasan meliputi arus 140 A sebesar<br>96,31 Kgf pada daerah pengelasan, 95,61 Kgf pada daerah logam yang bersentuhan, dan 87,92 Kgf pada material, arus<br>120 A sebesar 96,31 Kgf pada daerah pengelasan, 95,61 Kgf pada daerah logam yang bersentuhan, dan 87,92 Kgf pada<br>material, dan arus 100 A sebesar 96,31 Kgf pada daerah pengelasan, 95,61 Kgf pada daerah logam yang bersentuhan,<br>dan 87,92 Kgf pada material. Hasil kekuatan kekerasan tertinggi pada ketiga variasi arus adalah arus 140 A karena<br>penembusan yang baik dan memiliki hasil sifat menkanik yang baik. <br>Kata Kunci: fcaw, astm a36, sifat mekanik</p> Vio Krestanto, Tri Hartutuk Ningsih ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtm-unesa/article/view/57127 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PENGARUH VARIASI MEDIA PENDINGIN PADA PROSES PENGELASAN SMAW UNTUK MATERIAL BAJA ASTM A36 TERHADAP KEKUATAN TARIK, KEKERASAN, DAN STRUKTUR MIKRO https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtm-unesa/article/view/57487 <p>Abstrak<br>Untuk membuat arm engine sebuah sepeda motor menggunakan bahan utama berupa baja karbon rendah biasa. Namun, <br>tahap pengelasan yang terlibat dalam pembuatan Arm Engine ini dapat mengakibatkan adanya perubahan pada sifat <br>mekanik material dan tegangan sisa. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut dapat dilakukan proses pendinginan setelah <br>proses Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW). Tujuan dari proses pendinginan ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh <br>media pendingin yang berbeda pada nilai struktur mikro, kekuatan tarik, dan kekerasan material Baja ASTM A36. <br>Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimen, dimana dilakukan variasi media pendingin <br>setelah dilakukan pengelasan SMAW pada material baja ASTM A36. Diperoleh hasil yang menunjukkan media <br>pendingin gel lidah buaya dan getah pohon pisang memberikan pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap nilai struktur mikro, <br>kuat tarik, dan kekerasan pada hasil las SMAW material baja ASTM A36. Secara spesifik, media pendingin getah pohon <br>pisang mendapatkan nilai kuat tarik tertinggi yaitu 427,68 MPa. Selain itu, media pendingin nira pohon pisang <br>menghasilkan nilai kekerasan tertinggi yaitu sebesar 87,5 HRB pada area base metal, 91,4 HRB pada area Heat Affected <br>Zone (HAZ), dan 90,5 HRB pada area weld metal. Pendinginan terbaik oleh getah pohon pisang, pada daerah HAZ dan <br>weld metal struktur perlite dan ferrite lebih banyak daripada martensite, sehingga hasil las bersifat keras dan kuat.<br>Kata Kunci: Baja ASTM A36, Arm Engine, Media Pendingin, Uji Tarik, Uji Kekerasan, Struktur Mikro.</p> Bramantiyo Hari Saputro, Novi Sukma Drastiawati ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/jtm-unesa/article/view/57487 Tue, 14 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000