LITERA KULTURA : Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies <p><em>Litera Kultura: Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies </em>is a publication that publishes issues about literary works and cultures. This quarterly publishes essays that apply critical theories to analyze literature and popular culture in April, August, and December.</p> The English Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts, Universitas Negeri Surabaya en-US LITERA KULTURA : Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies 2356-2714 Ecocide in Avatar: The Way of Water (2022) - An Ecocritical Approach <p>Environmental damage, driven by global warming and rapid climate change, is one of Earth's most urgent issues. The rise in global temperatures has resulted in severe weather events, threatening ecosystems, biodiversity, and human health. This destruction, termed ecocide, was first introduced by Arthur W. Galston in 1970 and later expanded by environmental lawyer Polly Higgins. Ecocide refers to extensive damage to ecosystems, often leading to significant harm to local populations and biodiversity. This paper explores ecocide through historical and contemporary lenses, detailing Galston's efforts against the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam and Higgins' campaign to recognize ecocide as an international crime. It also examines real-world examples of ecocide, including the deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest, the destruction of the Aral Sea, and pollution of the Citarum River, highlighting human activities' detrimental impacts on the environment.</p> <p>Additionally, the paper analyzes the depiction of ecocide in James Cameron's film <em>Avatar: The Way of Water</em> (2022), which portrays the catastrophic consequences of environmental destruction through deforestation, illegal hunting, and the overexploitation of resources. The film serves as a reflection of real-world issues, emphasizing the themes of human greed, ignorance, and the dire state of Earth. This analysis underscores the importance of understanding and addressing ecocide to protect biodiversity and ensure a sustainable future for the planet.</p> Mohammad Yoga Andrianto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-27 2024-06-27 12 1 1 10 10.26740/lk.v12i1.60243 Obsessive and Harmonious Passion by Vallerand in The Fabelman (2022) <p>This study aims to explore the transformation from obsessive to harmonious passion in the character of Sammy Fabelman in the film The Fabelmans (2022) using Vallerand's Dualistic Model of Passion (DMP). The primary objective is to understand Sammy's process of shifting from an obsessive and potentially detrimental passion to a harmonious and fulfilling one. A qualitative film analysis is conducted to identify critical moments and factors contributing to Sammy's transformation. The research findings indicate that Sammy transitions from compulsive and rigid involvement in his filmmaking activities to a more flexible, integrated engagement, positively impacting his psychological well-being. This study emphasizes the relevance and application of the DMP model in literary analysis and provides insights into the dynamics influencing changes in individual passion. The results are expected to contribute to understanding character development in literature and film and encourage further research to explore characters' passions comprehensively, bridging the gap between psychology and literature.<br>Keywords: Passion, Dualistic Model of Passion, Obsessive, Harmonious, social-contextual</p> Difan Junaedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-27 2024-06-27 12 1 29 38 10.26740/lk.v12i1.60231 Understanding Amy Lau's Depression and Coping Strategies Depicted in Lee Sung Jin's Beef <p>Directed by Lee Sung Jin, the miniseries <em>Beef</em> (2023) portrays the story of Amy Lau, who suffers from depression because she tends to repress her emotions and desires. She employs several strategies to cope with her stressors. Therefore, this article purposely attempts to find out Amy's depression and the coping strategies used to deal the stressors. In analyzing her depression, this study employs Jacques Lacan's Mirror Stage and Symbolic Order to reveal the main character's identity process that can lead to depression. This study also uses Lazarus and Folkman's (1986) Transactional Model of Stress and Coping to reveal Amy's cognitive appraisal and coping strategies. Applying the film study research method, the researcher will focus on the behaviors, dialogues, scenes, and character's expressions throughout the miniseries. The result indicates that Amy's struggle with depression stems from her unfulfilled desires. In overcoming her stressors, Amy uses several coping strategies, such as self-controlling, focusing on and venting emotions, escape avoidance, seeking social support, planning, positive reappraisal, and acceptance.</p> Nur Laily Hidayati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-27 2024-06-27 12 1 39 48 10.26740/lk.v12i1.60233 Arthur Fleck's Hero's Journey in Todd Phillips' Joker (2019) <p>The hero’s journey is stages that a hero has to cross from the ordinary world to the unknown world to achieve the goal. This research was aimed to explain Joker or Arthur’s journey while facing the social concern with Gotham city. This research used Christopher Vogler’s hero’s journey to explain Arthur Fleck’s journey in Joker (2019). Qualitative research was also used to explain this research. The data used in this research was from the script of Joker (2019) and also the screenshots from the movie itself. The result of this analysis showed that Arthur or Joker passed the twelve stages of Hero’s Journey. Arthur had passed all the stages in the Departure Stage, which were the ordinary world; the call to adventure; refusal of the call; and meeting with the mentor. Furthermore, Arthur passed all the stages in the Initiation Stage, which were crossing the threshold; test, allies, and enemies; approach to the inmost cave; and the ordeal. Not only that, Arthur also had passed the Return Stage, which were the reward; the road back; the resurrection; and return with the elixir.</p> Sukma Wati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-27 2024-06-27 12 1 49 58 10.26740/lk.v12i1.60340 A Postcolonial Analysis of Hegemony and Resistance in Avatar: The Way of Water (2022) <p>This study explores Antonio Gramsci's Hegemony theory and Homi K. Bhabha's Mimicry theory within postcolonialism, focusing on their examination of power, culture, and resistance post-colonial rule. Gramsci’s theory sheds light on power dynamics and class conflict, while Bhabha’s theory discusses how the colonized mimic dominant cultures as a form of resistance. Using the film <em>Avatar: The Way of Water</em> (2022) directed by James Cameron, this research analyzes the themes of hegemony and resistance portrayed through Jake Sully's struggle against the "Sky People." The analysis involves linguistic and visual elements to uncover symbols and metaphors related to these themes. The research draws on Gramsci's "Prison Notebooks" and Bhabha's "The Location of Culture," using postcolonial criticism to interpret key sequences, dialogues, and visual components from the film.<br><strong>Keywords</strong>: Hegemony, Resistance, Mimicry.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hibatur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-27 2024-06-27 12 1 59 68 10.26740/lk.v12i1.61047 Rango’s Wild West Heroic Journey In Gore Verbinski’s Animated Movie Rango (2011) <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The hero's journey is a fundamental narrative structure present in every story. According to Vogler, each character can be seen as a hero in their own unique journey. This study aims to analyze the hero's journey in the 2011 animated movie, Rango. By applying Vogler's hero’s journey theory, the research seeks to uncover the transformational path of Rango, the film's main character. Additionally, this study examines the influence of archetypal characters in shaping the hero's development. The findings of this research highlight Rango's transformational journey, illustrated through the twelve stages of the Hero's Journey framework as outlined by Vogler. Furthermore, the study emphasizes the significance and roles of six key archetypal characters in guiding and molding the hero throughout his adventure. This analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of how Rango's character evolves and the pivotal contributions of supporting characters in his heroic journey.</span></p> Ishaqurrahman Sholeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-27 2024-06-27 12 1 69 78 10.26740/lk.v12i1.61089 Resistance Against Traditional Gender Roles by Sansa Stark <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This research explores Judith Butler's concept of gender roles in the book "Gender Trouble" and James Scott's theory of resistance. Butler's concept examines gender, while Scott's theory is a theory of resistance in the dividual or group forms of closed and open ways of resistance. By using the character Sansa Stark in the Game of Thrones series, this research analyzes Sansa Stark's resistance to traditional gender roles in Season 6 and also how it impacts her life. This analysis shows how Game of Thrones breaks traditional gender norms and patriarchal structures by presenting strong female characters such as Sansa Stark as one of the strong female characters in the male fiction series Game of Thrones.</span></p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;">: Resistance, Gender roles, Traditional</span></p> Angelina Aziimatussaadah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-27 2024-06-27 12 1 79 88 10.26740/lk.v12i1.61091 EXPLORING MOURNING AND MELANCHOLIA THROUGH GEPPETTO FROM GUILLERMO DEL TORO’S PINOCCHIO (2022) <p>This study examines the portrayal of Sigmund Freud's concepts of mourning and melancholia through the character of Geppetto in Guillermo Del Toro's <em>Pinocchio</em>. The utilization of psychological theories within fictional narratives has been a longstanding convention, as authors and filmmakers aim to illuminate the shared human experience of bereavement and its associated processes. The data for this study were obtained through a qualitative approach, employing a combination of visual and verbal cues to uncover themes connected to Freud's theory. The data underwent close reading, psychoanalytic cross-examination, and social analytic cross-examination. The results indicate that Geppetto's experience following the loss of his son provides compelling evidence of mourning. This is evidenced by his exhibition of intense sadness, fluctuating emotions, attachment to memories of Carlo, and disruption of daily functioning. Furthermore, Geppetto displays signs of melancholia, including persistent sadness, loss of interest and pleasure, cognitive distortion, and ambivalence toward Pinocchio. Additionally, social factors, such as living in the aftermath of a world war and being a single father who has lost his only child, contribute to Geppetto's state of melancholia. This study serves as a contribution to the psychoanalytic approach in literature and provides insights for future research pertaining to mourning, melancholia, and grief in general.</p> Mochamad Farid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-27 2024-06-27 12 1 11 20 10.26740/lk.v12i1.60181 The Trauma and Overcoming The Trauma in Kana Akatsuki’s Violet Evergarden (2018) <p>This study analyses the trauma that transpires in the main character of a Japanese Animation entitled Violet Evergarden. Utilizing Cathy Caruth's and Dominick LaCapra's theory, particularly in the concept of trauma narratives and their reconciliation. This research explored the trauma undergone by the character, the factors that contributed to it, and the way the character overcomes it. The findings revealed that the characters experienced three types of trauma such as emotion numbing, belatedness and intrusive thoughts. Additionally, to cope with the trauma, the character experiences a process called working through and acting out. The research concludes that the characters are indeed undergoing a series of trauma due to the war time and attempting to live in the current life.</p> Alviya Zahra Husnia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-27 2024-06-27 12 1 21 28 10.26740/lk.v12i1.60247