Paradigma https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma <p>Jurnal Paradigma merupakan Jurnal Online Mahasiswa Program Studi S-1 Sosiologi Fakultas Ilmu Sosial Universitas Negeri Surabaya</p> en-US fsadewo@unesa.ac.id (FX Sri Sadewo) paradigma@ejournal.unesa.ac.id (Redaksi Paradigma) Fri, 15 Jan 2021 03:12:49 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Rasionalitas Pelajar Surabaya Terlibat Gang https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/37683 <p>Gang menjadi fenomena di Surabaya pada saat itu, didalamnya berisi remaja - remaja yang melakukan tindakan kekerasan dan tawuran. Tujuan penelitian yaitu untuk mengetahui motif anggota membentuk gang, Metode dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif deskriptif, subjek yang diteliti berasal dari anggota gang BRT yang mempunyai peranan penting di kelompok gang (Barisan Remaja Tampan) BRT. Pengumpulan data peneliti menggunakan dokumentasi dan wawancara. Motif anggota membentuk kelompok gang BRT, berdasarkan informasi informan bahwa perekrutan anggota gang BRT dengan cara mengajak teman-temannya yang sebaya maupun yang lain dengan cara mengajak langsung dan bila setuju atau suka langsung di masukkan dalam group whatsApp. Tujuan di bentuknya gang BRT ini karena mereka ingin berkumpul bersama teman untuk bermain game online dan aktivitas kelompok gang BRT ini berkumpul untuk membuat rencana dan strategi agar mereka lebih ditakuti dan bergengsi daripada gang lain yang ada di kota Surabaya. Hasil penelitian adalah bahwa subjek mengikuti gang BRT karena dimasukkan ke Grup WhatsApp oleh teman nya, kemudian aktivitas BRT yaitu berkumpul untuk membuat gang bisa disegani, tawuran antar gang di daerah Surabaya Timur adu gengsi antar gang. Dimana gang (Barisan Remaja Tampan) BRT dapat di takuti atau disegani oleh gang lain, sehingga kelompok tersebut merasa lebih gengsi dibanding gang lain.</p> octavian garry syahputra ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/37683 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 03:01:57 +0000 RASIONALITAS PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN PUS PENGGUNA “KB TUBEKTOMI” PADA MASYARAKAT SANTRI DI KABUPATEN JOMBANG https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/37781 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Indonesia's population growth from year to year is increasing. BPS data for 2015 shows that the total population of Indonesia in 2015 was 238,518,000. In the 2015 BPS data report, it is predicted that there will be an increase in the population in 2020. The government established the Population and Family Planning Agency. The BKKBN has a family planning program that aims to delay, spacing, and regulate pregnancy spacing. One of the existing family planning methods is tubectomy. Tubectomy or what is commonly called MOW is one of the long-term family planning methods. Tubectomy KB method is performed by surgery. Based on data on active family planning participants in 2018 in East Java, especially users of the tubectomy family planning method reached 287,444 in fertile age couples in several cities and districts. Jombang Regency which is known as the city of santri is in 6th position with the highest number of tubectomy family planning participants. The purpose of this study is to identify the sources of information, perspectives, factors, processes, and rationality of decision making for reproductive age couples using tubectomy family planning in the santri community in Jombang Regency. Researchers used Max Weber's rationality action theory to be used as a knife of analysis in this study. The approach used is grounded theory. The grounded theory approach consists of three stages, namely open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. The results of this study indicate that there are four types of Max Weber's rationality actions when making decisions on using tubectomy family planning for reproductive age couples who come from the santri community in Jombang Regency.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <em>Tubectomy Family Planning, Santri Society, Fertile Age Couples</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;The Rationality of Decision Making</em></p> Ika Nisa Nurfitri ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/37781 Mon, 18 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 RASIONALITAS PENSIUNAN PEGAWAI KAI DALAM MENGIKUTI ORGANISASI PERPENKA DI SURABAYA https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/37711 <p>Bekerja adalah salah satu cara untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidup manusia. Akan tetapi individu tidak dapat bekerja seumur hidupnya. Ada masa dimana individu memasuki pensiun. Pensiun merupakan selesainya masa bekerja. Individu yang pensiun dapat dikatakan sebagai individu yang telah memasuki masa lanjut usia. Pensiunan tidak lagi dapat berkegiatan seperti pada saat mereka aktif bekerja. Ketersediaan waktu longgar&nbsp; harus diisi dengan kegiatan yang positif. Kegiatan tersebut salah satunya dapat ditemui pada organisasi kemasyarakatan. PT.Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) memiliki wadah resmi pensiunan bernama PERPENKA. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dan <em>verstehen </em>sebagai pendekatannya. Paradigma definisi sosial dipilih dalam penelitian ini. Penelitian dilakukan di PERPENKA Surabaya. Pensiunan serta keluarganya yang tergabung dalam PERPENKA menjadi subjek penelitian ini. Pengambilan data menggunakan dua teknik, yaitu secara primer dan sekunder. Data yang didapat dianalisis menggunakan teknik yang dikemukakan oleh Moleong. Terdapat tiga tahap menganalisis data yaitu pemrosesan satuan data, kategorisasi data, dan penafsiran data. Data dianalisis menggunakan teori tindakan sosial yang dikemukakan oleh Max Weber. Hasil penelitian yang didapat adalah rasionalitas yang digunakan dapat dipilah kedalam empat jenis tindakan sosial. Rasionalitas yang digunakan pensiunan masuk kedalam tindakan rasionalitas instrumental, tindakan yang berorientasi pada nilai, tindakan tradisional, dan juga tindakan afeksi.</p> <p>Kata Kunci: Rasionalitas, Pensiunan, Organisasi Kemasyarakatan.</p> Bella Ayu Damayanti, Farid Pribadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/37711 Mon, 18 Jan 2021 07:49:02 +0000 Habituasi Masyarakat Miskin Dalam Penerapan Program Sistem Layanan dan Rujukan Terpadu (SLRT) di Desa Jengglungharjo, Kecamatan Tanggunggunung, Kabupaten Tulungagung https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/37714 <p>Penerapan suatu program dari pemerintah merupakan suatu hal yang akan memunculkan habitus dalam suatu masyarakat. Habitus yang ada dalam lingkungan masyarakat akan terus dilakukan dalam waktu yang cukup lama. Program Sistem Layanan dan Rujukan Terpadu akan mencatat masyarakat miskin yang membutuhkan bantuan yang ada di desa. Masyarakat miskin yang tercatat akan diusulkan ke pusat. Penelitian ini akan membahas tentang bagaimana habituasi masyarakat miskin dalam penerapan Program Sistem Layanan Rujukan Terpadu di Desa Jengglungharjo, Kecamatan Tanggunggunung, Kabupaten Tulungagung. Teori yang digunakan menggunakan perspektif Bourdieu mengenai Habitus. Data yang diambil dengan menggunakan teknik wawancara dan observasi. Hasil yang didapatkan bahwa adanya program ini membuat masyarakat terlena dengan bantuan yang diterima dari pemerintah. Habitus masyarakat miskin dengan adanya program ini akan senantiasa mendapatkan bantuan secara terus menerus. Namun ketika adanya perubahan hidup dalam masyarakat miskin, maka masyrakat tersebut tidak lagi diusulkan sebagai penerima beantuan. Namun masih banyak masyarakat yang tergolong mampu masih membutuhkan bantuan. Mereka menganggap bahwa mereka juga layak menerima bantuan supaya diberikan secara rata. Habitus masyarakat ini muncul karena mereka tidak mau untuk mengurus mengenai bantuan yang diinginkan. Terkadang masyarakat yang dianggap mampu juga masih membutuhkan bantuan karena bisa jadi masyarakat tersbeut sudah tidak mampu seperti dahulu. Masyarakat tersebut hanya mau menerima ketika diberi bantuan tetapi tidak mau untuk menjelaskan kepada pihak terkait yang ada di desa.</p> Rizma Ayu Kusuma Wardani ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/37714 Mon, 18 Jan 2021 08:12:42 +0000 STRATEGI ADAPTASI MASYARAKAT PASCA PEMBANGUNAN EKOWISATA DI DESA SENDI, KABUPATEN MOJOKERTO https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/37837 <p>Development is something that will happen to social life, the existence of development will bring about changes in the impact of society. Ecotourism development in Sendi village brings various changes that cannot be avoided by the community. To cope with these changes, residents must be able to adapt in certain ways or actions. The village community in Sendi is a village community that is far from modern, for this reason, the existence of ecotourism is a challenge for residents to maintain their survival. The existing challenges must be able to be overcome by all residents, if the residents cannot overcome the challenges that are in front of them after the ecotourism is built, new social problems will arise. Therefore, the formulation in this study is how the adaptation strategy carried out by the community after the ecotourism development in Sendi village. The method used in this study is qualitative methods, the use of qualitative methods aims to provide a clear picture of the strategies that have been carried out by the people of Sendi. The results showed that the methods used by the community were building interaction with visitors, building cooperative relationships among villagers, building trust, holding existing values ​​and norms, and building networks for the development of ecotourism in their villages.</p> <p><strong>Keywords </strong>: Adaptation Strategy, Ecotourism, Society</p> RISTANTI INDRAYANINGTIAS ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/37837 Wed, 20 Jan 2021 04:47:49 +0000 KOMODIFIKASI FESYEN BONEK DI SURABAYA SELATAN https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/38690 <p>Tulisan ini membahas tentang industri budaya fesyen Bonek <em>Green Nord</em> yang berada di Surabaya Selatan. Wilayah Surabaya Selatan selama ini menjadi salah satu basis massa dari <em>Green Nord. Green Nord</em>&nbsp;adalah kelompok Bonek yang menempati Tribun Utara saat pertandingan Persebaya di Stadion Gelora Bung Tomo. Kelompok ini memiliki penampilan fesyen yang cukup majemuk. Keberagaman ini memunculkan perkembangan komoditas fesyen yang dikonsumsi oleh Bonek dan dianalisis menggunakan teori industri budaya Adorno. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan studi kasus. Lokasi penelitian dilakukan di daerah Surabaya Selatan. Subyek Penelitian berasal dari kelompok Bonek <em>Green Nord</em> dan pelaku industri fesyen Bonek. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penampilan fesyen Bonek terlihat semakin kekinian. <em>Green Nord</em> memiliki sebuah aturan khusus untuk wajib berjersey dan bersepatu saat pertandingan kandang. Saat Persebaya melakukan pertandingan tandang, mereka menggunakan atribut kasual maupun pakaian hitam. Tayangan informasi sepak bola luar negeri secara masif membuat Bonek mengadaptasi budaya suporter <em>Ultras</em> dan <em>Hooligan</em> dari Eropa. Komoditas fesyen dikonsumsi Bonek bukan hanya untuk mendukung Persebaya melainkan juga, sebagai kebiasaan hidup sehari-hari mereka.</p> <p><br><strong>Kata Kunci:</strong> <em>Komoditas; Fesyen Bonek; Green Nord; Surabaya Selatan</em></p> Fathur Rozy, Ardhie Raditya ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/38690 Tue, 16 Mar 2021 15:04:00 +0000 PEREMPUAN DAN PERCERAIAN DALAM PERSPEKTIF FENOMENOLOGI (MOTIF PEREMPUAN UNTUK MENGGUGAT CERAI PADA KELUARGA TKI DI KABUPATEN TULUNGAGUNG) https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/38790 <p>Penelitian ini dilatar belakangi oleh tingginya kasus cerai gugat yang ada di Kabupaten Tulungagung. Tingginya angka cerai gugat yang ada di Tulungagung turut disumbang oleh perceraian keluarga TKI. Dalam penelitian ini mengambil fokus penelitian pada motif utama perempuan keluarga TKI dalam menggugat cerai suaminya. Dalam penelitian ini menggunakan analisis teori fenomenologi dan Alfred Schutz mengenai motif sebab dan motif tujuan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif. Data dalam penelitian ini diperoleh dengan beberapa cara yakni melalui observasi, wawancara dan dokumentasi. Dari hasil proses penelitian menghasilkan suatu kesimpulan yang mana ada beberapa macam motif perempuan melakukan gugatan cerai kepada suaminya. Motif sebab perempuan menggugat cerai suaminya karena permasalahan ekonomi, kurangnya kejujuran dari suami, tidak adanya tanggung jawab dari suami, adanya perselingkuhan dan karena adanya tindak kekerasan didalam rumah tangga. Selain itu tindakan seorang perempuan yang menggugat cerai suaminya juga dilatarbelakani beberapa motif tujuan seperti untuk keluar dari berbagai beban permasalahan dan untuk keluar dari berbagai penderitaan hidup berumah tangga.</p> Amarul Ilham Rizky, Refti Handini Listyani ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/38790 Wed, 24 Mar 2021 12:23:36 +0000 Kekerasan Simbolik oleh Guru PLB di SLB Negeri Gunungsari Baureno Bojonegoro https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/38760 <p>Terjadinya kekerasan di sekolah masih banyak terjadi. Kekerasan dapat berupa fisik, verbal termasuk kekerasan simbolik. Kekerasan dilakukan dengan pemahaman untuk menciptakan keteraturan yang tertib, disiplin dan kondusif didalam kelas. Menciptakan kedisiplinan pada peserta didik melalui pendidikan di sekolah. &nbsp;Namun, dengan menggunakan kekerasan dapat memberikan akibat kepada peserta didik pada kenyamanan belajarnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggali terkait kekerasan simbolik yang terjadi di SLB Negeri Gunungsari oleh guru PLB. Sebagaimana guru PLB seharusnya memiliki pengalaman serta pengetahuan yang lebih baik untuk penanganan anak-anak berkebutuhan khusus dalam memberikan pendidikan. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan subjek penelitian ini adalah guru dan peserta didik yang mengalami kekerasan simbolik. Pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan tahap observasi, wawancara dan dokumentasi. Analisis dalam penelitian ini berdasarkan perspektif kekerasan Simbolik oleh Pierre Bourdieu. Hasil penelitian menyatakan terjadinya kekerasan simbolik merupakan penerapan yang dilakukan untuk menciptakan moral kehormatan pada diri anak. Kekerasan dilakukan apabila peserta didik mengalami tantrum, tidak mengikuti pelajaran dengan baik ketika di dalam kelas serta tidak menerapkan aturan sekolah. Adapun reaksi dari peserta didik yang dimunculkan menunjukkan ketidaknyamanan terhadap guru menjadi bentuk penyesuaian dalam kegiatan belajar mengajar. Tindakan yang tegas bukan menjadi kekerasan semata akan tetapi untuk menciptakan moral kehormatan bagi pribadi peserta didik. Kekuasaan yang dimiliki oleh guru dijadikan sebagai ekosistem pendidikan yang dapat mengajarkan peserta didik memiliki perilaku yang baik.</p> Adinda Ajeng Apriliana ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/38760 Wed, 24 Mar 2021 13:14:39 +0000 PEREMPUAN DAN PERCERAIAN DALAM PERSPEKTIF FENOMENOLOGI (MOTIF PEREMPUAN UNTUK MENGGUGAT CERAI PADA KELUARGA TKI DI KABUPATEN TULUNGAGUNG) https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/38809 <p>Penelitian ini dilatar belakangi oleh tingginya kasus cerai gugat yang ada di Kabupaten <br>Tulungagung. Tingginya angka cerai gugat yang ada di Tulungagung turut disumbang oleh <br>perceraian keluarga TKI. Dalam penelitian ini mengambil fokus penelitian pada motif utama <br>perempuan keluarga TKI dalam menggugat cerai suaminya. Dalam penelitian ini <br>menggunakan analisis teori fenomenologi dan Alfred Schutz mengenai motif sebab dan motif <br>tujuan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif. Data dalam penelitian ini <br>diperoleh dengan beberapa cara yakni melalui observasi, wawancara dan dokumentasi. Dari <br>hasil proses penelitian menghasilkan suatu kesimpulan yang mana ada beberapa macam motif <br>perempuan melakukan gugatan cerai kepada suaminya. Motif sebab perempuan menggugat <br>cerai suaminya karena permasalahan ekonomi, kurangnya kejujuran dari suami, tidak adanya <br>tanggung jawab dari suami, adanya perselingkuhan dan karena adanya tindak kekerasan <br>didalam rumah tangga. Selain itu tindakan seorang perempuan yang menggugat cerai <br>suaminya juga dilatarbelakani beberapa motif tujuan seperti untuk keluar dari berbagai beban <br>permasalahan dan untuk keluar dari berbagai penderitaan hidup berumah tangga.<br><br></p> Amarul Ilham Rizky, Refti Handini Listyani ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/38809 Wed, 24 Mar 2021 13:29:52 +0000 Interaksi Simbolik Siswa SMAN 1 Tuban Pasca Sistem Kredit Semester https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/38481 <p>Interaction is an action between groups of individuals, individuals with group, groups with groups. An activity can be called an interaction when there is reciprocal communication and social contact. Social interaction starts from the family circle. Over time the interaction occurs in a broader scope such as schools. The evaluations carried out in the curriculum led to the formation of a semester credit system at various reference school. SMAN 1 Tuban is a included in the reference school for implementing SKS. SMAN 1 Tuban applies a semester credit system using UKBM learning media. The school categorizes students into two classes regular and migration (accelerated). This research is a qualitative using case study approach. The symbolic interaction that is used as an analysis knife in this study belongs to the social definition paradigm. This research tppk place at SMAN 1 Tuban. Migration and reguler class students are the subject in this study. This study uses observation, in-depth interviews, and documentation as a data collection techniques. The data that has been collected is then analyzed using a strategy developed by Miles &amp; Huberma. Miles &amp; Huberman categorized the analysis strategy into the processes, reduction, presentation, and conclusion. The result of this research is symbolic interaction by H. Blumer. Blumer divides his concept into five basic ideas, self concept, action, object, social interaction, and collective action.</p> <p>Keywoard : Semester Credit System, Student, Symbolic Interaction</p> Fitriani Dina Atmaja, Farid Pribadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/38481 Thu, 25 Mar 2021 14:24:21 +0000 Makna MAKNA KAWIN-CERAI “MABENNYA’ AKABHIN, NAMBHEI PAJHU” https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/38940 <p>Penelitian ini bermaksud mendeskripsikan interaksionisme simbolik dari fenomena “mabennya’ akabhin, nambhei pajhu” yang artinya semakin sering menikah semakin laris dilatarbelakangi oleh tingginyaa angkaperceraian di Kabupaten Sumenep, khususnya di Desa Dungkek. Adapun tujuan penelitian inia adalah1) Mengidentifikasi kondisi objektif tentang perkawinan. 2) Mengidentifikasi tentang fungsi perkawinandan perceraian. 3) Mengidentifikasi pandangan masayarakat tentang perceraian dan kedudukan orang yang bercerai. 4) Mengkaji makna perceraian. Pendekatan yang dipakai dalam penelitian ini adalah kualitatif. Landasan teori yang digunakan adalah teori interaksionisme simbolik George Herbert Mead. Informan dalam penelitian ini ditentukan melalui teknik purposive sampling. Untuk mengumpulkan data, metode yang dipakai adalah etnografi Spradley dengan wawancara mendalam, sesuai dengan tujuan penelitian. Temuan yang didapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah: Pertama, Perkawinan dianggap sebagai salah satu budaya dan bagian dari siklus hidup manusia yang menjadi landasan&nbsp;bagi terbentuknya suatu keluarga yang dibentuk atas dasar tanggungjawab perkawinan dan prinsip-prinsip dasar perkawinan. Kedua, fungsi perkawinan diantaranya untuk mendapatkan keturunan, mememenuhihajat, agama, menumbuhkan rasa tanggungjawab dan membangun rumah tangga yang tentram. Sementara fungsi perceraian dijadikan sebagai media untuk memutuskan hubungan pernikahan dengan berbagai alasan yang dapat diterima hukum. Ketiga, pandangan masyarakat tentang perceraian dianggap sebagai sebuah jalan putusnya hubungan suami istri dengan alasan tertentu dengan harapan anak masih bisa mendapatkan kasih sayang yang seharusnya tanpa kekurangan apapun atau sampai broken home. Kedudukan orang yang bercerai baik dalam diri sendiri, keluarga, dan masyarakat sama-sama dapat menerima status janda atau duda karena kawin-cerai sudah menjadi kebiasaan yang lumrah dilakukan. Masyarakat mengkonsepkan dirinya sebagai “I” dan “Me” sesuai dengan stimulus yang didapat untuk membentuk sebuah respon berupa tindakan yang terdiri dari simbol dengan berbagai makna dari gesture dan&nbsp;bahasa. Keempat, kawin-cerai diibaratkan seperti orang pacaran “putus nyambung” yang dipengaruhi oleh lingkungan sekitar yang masih kolot. Menyebabkan pernikahan tidak bertahan lama, biasanya disebabkanoleh perjodohan, umur yang masih kurang, kurang siap menjalani rumat tangga, psikologis, tekanan masalah, orang ketiga, dan kurang pemahaman terutama dari guru ngaji dan orang tua mengenai pentingnya menikah satu kali sesuai norma agama dan norma hukum.</p> Sinta Nuriyah ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/38940 Tue, 30 Mar 2021 14:28:35 +0000 Reproduksi Nilai-nilai agama di SD Negeri Ploso https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39006 <p>Pendidikan merupakan hal yang mendasar bagi generasi penerus. Pendidikan menjadi</p> <p>sarana reproduksi nilai-nilai agama. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi kondisi siswa</p> <p>SD Negeri Ploso Jombang; memaparkan habitus siswa SD Negeri Ploso Jombang;</p> <p>memaparkan modal yang dimiliki oleh siswa SD Negeri Ploso Jombang dalam pertarungan</p> <p>suatu ranah; menjelaskan ranah reproduksi nilai-nilai agama antara tenaga kependidikan dan</p> <p>siswa SD Negeri Ploso Jombang; memaparkan praktik dominasi serta praktik perlawanan</p> <p>siswa SD Negeri Ploso Jombang; mengungkap reproduksi nilai-nilai agama Kristen di SD</p> <p>Negeri Ploso Jombang. Metode yang digunakan kualitatif dengan pendekatan strukturalisme</p> <p>generatif perspektif Pierre Bourdieu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa siswa SD Negeri</p> <p>Ploso berada pada kelas ekonomi menengah ke bawah. Guru menempati kelas dominan</p> <p>sedangkan siswa menempati kelas populer. Siswa tidak mampu memberikan perlawanan</p> <p>berarti kepada guru karena jumlah modal yang kecil. Pada ranah pertarungan anatara guru</p> <p>dan siswa SD Negeri Ploso terjadi reproduksi nilai kesempurnaan moral yang selanjutnya</p> <p>dianggap sebagai hal alami dalam diri siswa sebagai produk habitus.</p> Magda Ilona Dwi Putri ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39006 Wed, 14 Apr 2021 04:37:29 +0000 MAKNA DIRI PEREMPUAN PRAJURIT TNI-AD (Studi Korps Wanita Angkatan Darat“KOWAD” Kodam V Brawijaya) https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/38914 <p>Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi latar belakang perempuan memilih pekerjaan sebagai TNI AD (Kowad), mengidentifikasi makna perempuan dan dirinya sendiri yang bekerja sebagai Kowad, serta untuk menganalisis kesetaraan gender di lingkup Militer. Subjek penelitian ini adalah lima orang anggota Kowad (Korps Wanita Angkatan Darat) yang sudah maupun belum menikah, serta pemilihan subjek penelitian menggunakan teknik <em>Snowball Sampling</em>. Teknik pengumpulan data diambil dengan observasi, wawancara dan dokumentasi, sementara itu teknik analisis yang digunakan adalah dengan teknik analisis gender Model Moser. Hasil penelitian ditemuka bahwa proses simbolik (simbol seragam tentara) dapat menghantarkan perempuan Kowad untuk mengenal dirinya sendiri dan pekerjaannya, selanjutnya perempuan anggota Kowad juga telah membuktikan bahwa perempuan juga mampu bersaing di ranah pekerjaan publik yang didominasi oleh laki-laki. Terakhir, meskipun perempuan sudah bekerja di ranah militer, namun ternyata perbedaan gender masih ada, terkait dengan perbedaan tugas perempuan dan laki-laki, perempuan hanya diberikan kesempatan untuk mengurus hal-hal yang terkait administrasi dan logistik.</p> <p><strong>Kata</strong> <strong>kunci: </strong><em>makna diri, perempuan, prajurit TNI-A</em><em>D</em></p> Errina Safitri, Refti Handini Listyani ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/38914 Thu, 22 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Motif Tindakan Pemasungan Penyandang Psikotik oleh Keluarga di Kabupaten Nganjuk https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39390 <p>Psikotik merupakan penyakit kejiwaan yang dapat dialami oleh siapa saja dikarenakan Stress, Keturunan, atau menggunakan obat-obatan seperti Narkoba. Di Indonesia Penyandang Psikotik pada tahun 2013 tercatat setidaknya ada 257.000 Jiwa. Diantaranya 53.000 Penyandang Psikotik dipasung oleh keluarganya. Pemerintah pun membuat kebijakan untuk mengurangi pemasungan dengan sebutan Bebas Pasung yang dimulai pada tahun 2013. Walaupun kebijakan sudah diterapkan pada tahun 2017 khususnya di Jawa Timur sendiri masih ada Penyandang Psikotik terpasung aktif Sejumlah 728 ODGJ dari total penyandang 2.094 ODGJ. Dan Kabupaten Nganjuk menjadi salah satu kota dengan kasus ODGJ terpasung yang masih banyak masih ada 22 dari total 87 Penyandang Psikotik. Tujuan Penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengidentiifikasi serta mencari Motif utama dan motif samping dari pemasungan yang dilakukan kepada anggota keluarganya yang merupakan penyandang psikotik. Peneliti menggunakan teori motif tindakan Alfred Schutz yang dijadikan landasan untuk menganalisis dalam penelitian ini. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah Pendekatan Fenomenologi dimana apa yang dilakukan oleh individu tersebut selalu disertai oleh makna dan dianalisis dengan reduksi data, penyajian data, dan penarikan kesimpulan. Hasil Penelitian ini berdasarkan Because of motive terdapat tiga motif tindakan pemasungan yang dilakukan. Sedangkan In-order to motive yaitu keinginan keluarga merawat anggota keluarganya hingga sembuh ataupun hingga akhir hayat penyandang psikotik tersebut.</p> <p>Kata Kunci : Psikotik, Pemasungan, Keluarga</p> Tyan Raka Pratyastama ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39390 Wed, 05 May 2021 14:55:19 +0000 MAKNA KAWIN-CERAI “MABENNYA’ AKABHIN, NAMBHEI PAJHU” https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39495 <p>Penelitian ini bermaksud mendeskripsikan interaksionisme simbolik dari fenomena <em>“mabennya’ akabhin, nambhei pajhu”</em> yang artinya semakin sering menikah semakin laris dilatarbelakangi oleh tingginya angka perceraian di Kabupaten Sumenep, khususnya di Desa Dungkek. Adapun tujuan penelitian ini adalah 1) Mengidentifikasi kondisi objektif tentang perkawinan. 2) Mengidentifikasi tentang fungsi perkawinan dan perceraian. 3) Mengidentifikasi pandangan masayarakat tentang perceraian dan kedudukan orang yang bercerai. 4) Mengkaji makna perceraian. Pendekatan yang dipakai dalam penelitian ini adalah kualitatif. Landasan teori yang digunakan adalah teori interaksionisme simbolik George Herbert Mead. Informan dalam penelitian ini ditentukan melalui teknik <em>purposive sampling</em>. Untuk mengumpulkan data, metode yang dipakai adalah etnografi Spradley dengan wawancara mendalam, sesuai dengan tujuan penelitian. Temuan yang didapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah: Pertama, Perkawinan dianggap sebagai salah satu budaya dan bagian dari siklus hidup manusia yang menjadi landasan bagi terbentuknya suatu keluarga yang dibentuk atas dasar tanggungjawab perkawinan dan prinsip-prinsip dasar perkawinan. Kedua, fungsi perkawinan diantaranya untuk mendapatkan keturunan, memenuhi hajat, agama, menumbuhkan rasa tanggungjawab dan membangun rumah tangga yang tentram. Sementara fungsi perceraian dijadikan sebagai media untuk memutuskan hubungan pernikahan dengan berbagai alasan yang dapat diterima hukum. Ketiga, pandangan masyarakat tentang perceraian dianggap sebagai sebuah jalan putusnya hubungan suami istri dengan alasan tertentu dengan harapan anak masih bisa mendapatkan kasih sayang yang seharusnya tanpa kekurangan apapun atau sampai <em>broken home</em>. Kedudukan orang yang bercerai baik dalam diri sendiri, keluarga, dan masyarakat sama-sama dapat menerima status janda atau duda karena kawin-cerai sudah menjadi kebiasaan yang lumrah dilakukan. Masayarakat mengkonsepkan dirinya sebagai <em>“I”</em> dan <em>“Me</em>” sesuai dengan stimulus yang didapat untuk membentuk sebuah respon berupa tindakan yang terdiri dari simbol dengan berbagai makna dari gesture dan bahasa. Keempat, kawin-cerai diibaratkan seperti orang pacaran “putus nyambung” yang dipengaruhi oleh lingkungan sekitar yang masih kolot. Menyebabkan pernikahan tidak bertahan lama, biasanya disebabkan oleh perjodohan, umur yang masih kurang, kurang siap menjalani rumat tangga, psikologis, tekanan masalah, orang ketiga, dan kurang pemahaman terutama dari guru ngaji dan orang tua mengenai pentingnya menikah satu kali sesuai norma agama dan norma hukum.</p> Sinta Nuriyah ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39495 Fri, 07 May 2021 04:23:52 +0000 DRAMATURGI TKI ILEGAL DI KEPULAUAN KANGEAN https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39483 <p>Masyarakat Kangean sebagai bagian dari etnis Madura selama ini dikenal sebagai salah satu penghasil TKI ilegal di Indonesia. Keberadaan TKI ilegal asal Kangean ditemukan di negara Malaysia. Mereka bekerja sebagai buruh bangunan demi tujuan &nbsp;migrasi yang diimpikan. Namun, tidak sedikit dari mereka mengalami kegagalan migrasi akibat masalah yang dihadapi atas konsekuensi status ilegal mereka. Mulai dari tertangkap pihak keamanan, kecelakaan kerja hingga gaji yang tidak dibayar. Dalam realitasnya mereka tidak ingin menunjukkan kegagalan yang mereka alami ketika pulang ke Kangean. Mereka menciptakan citra diri mereka agar terlihat stabil di masyarakat. Penelitian ini kemudian bertujuan menggali praktik pembuatan citra diri para TKI ilegal Kangean ini dengan menggunakan pendekatan dramaturgi Erving Goffman. Selain itu, penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian kualitatif deskriptif dengan pendekatan Etnografi James Spardley. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di panggung depan para TKI ilegal berusaha menunjukkan beberapa perubahan seperti merenovasi rumah, mengubah tampilan diri menjadi lebih trendi, dan menggunakan bahasa Malaysia dalam berbicara. Tindakan tersebut dilakukan untuk meyakinkan masyarakat di sekitarnya bahwa mereka memperoleh banyak hasil dalam bekerja di Malaysia. Sedangkan di bagian panggung belakang, TKI ilegal Kangean berusaha tidak menceritakan pengalaman pahit menjadi TKI ilegal dan berusaha menutupi persoalan hutang yang mereka tanggung ketika megalami kegagalan migrasi ini.</p> Ahmad Sufyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39483 Sun, 23 May 2021 13:44:38 +0000 KONSTRUKSI LANSIA TENTANG PROGRAM PERMAKANAN PEMERINTAH KOTA SURABAYA https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39579 <p>Indonesia saat ini menghadapi masalah kemiskinan. Kemiskinan terjadi karena beberapa faktor seperti tingkat pendapatan, pendidikan, kesehatan, dan kondisi lingkungan. Ketidakmampuan masyarakat sangat miskin atau terlantar memunculkan suatu masalah yang dinamakan PMKS (Penyandang Masalah Kesejahteraan Sosial). Pada saat ini populasi dunia memasuki (<em>ageing population</em>) yaitu tujuh persen penduduk dunia merupakan penduduk lansia berumur 60 tahun. Program permakanan yang digagas oleh Ibu Tri Rismaharini diharapkan agar masyarakat terutama lansia dapat meningkatkan kesejahteraan dan mendapatkan makan secara teratur. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan bentuk program permakanan yang digagas oleh Walikota Surabaya melalui Dinas Sosial dan menganalisis konstruksi lansia tentang program permakanan Pemerintah Kota Surabaya. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan perspektif konstruksi sosial menurut Peter Ludwig Berger dan Luckman. Subjek penelitian adalah para lansia yang ditentukan melalui teknik <em>purposive. </em>Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui tiga tahapan yaitu observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan teknik analisis data dengan metode <em>grounded theory. </em>Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan dilapangan menunjukkan bahwa konstruksi lansia mengenai program permakanan menjadi suatu realitas sosial dalam masyarakat. Realitas sosial dikonstruksi menjadi tiga tahapan momen yaitu momen eksternalisasi, objektivasi, dan internalisasi. Momen eksternalisasi yaitu masyarakat lansia telah terkonstruksi pikirannya mengenai permakanan yang diberikan oleh pemerintah Kota Surabaya melalui Dinas Sosial Kota Surabaya. Momen objektivasi yaitu konstruksi yang diciptakan oleh Dinas Sosial, Kelurahan, dan masyarakat memiliki pemahaman yang sama. Momen internalisasi yaitu sosialisasi akan berhasil jika identitas yang dimiliki mempunyai kesamaan. Sosialisasi yang dilakukan yaitu sosialisasi promer dan sosialisasi sekunder. Dengan demikian, Dinas Sosial dan masyarakat lansia penerima program permakanan mendapat manfaat yang sama dari program permakanan.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci : </strong><em>Konstruksi sosial, Kemiskinan, Program Permakanan, Lansia</em></p> Tito Surya Baskara ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39579 Tue, 25 May 2021 15:46:39 +0000 PERILAKU PEMILIH PEMULA DALAM MERESPON WACANA RISMA EFFECT PADA PILKADA SURABAYA 2020 https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39719 <p>Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi oleh maraknya wacana <em>Risma effect</em> yang merupakan perpaduan antara prestasi pembangunan dan citra Tri Rismaharini pada kontestasi politik pemilihan walikota Surabaya tahun 2020. Maraknya informasi tersebut disumbang pula oleh pemberitaan media massa terutama sosial media yang menjadi akses mayoritas pemilih pemula. Dalam penelitian ini mengambil fokus penelitian pada perilaku pemilih pemula dalam merespon wacana <em>Risma effect</em> yakni sikap dalam menjatuhkan pilihan politik berorientasi meneruskan kinerja Risma atau tidak. Dalam penelitian ini menggunakan analisis teori pilihan rasional James S. Coleman mengenai aktor dan sumber daya. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kuantitatif statistik deskriptif. Responden dalam penelitian ini adalah pemilih remaja berumur 17-21 tahun, dan memiliki status kependudukan kota Surabaya dengan jenis sampling <em>probability</em> <em>sampling</em>, teknik pengambilan sampel berupa <em>sampling</em> <em>area</em> dan <em>simple random sampling</em>. Dalam penelitian ini peneliti menggunakan teknik pengumpulan data berupa angket dan dokumentasi. Serta analisa menggunakan software SPSS menggunakan prosentase dan tabulasi silang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perilaku pemilih pemula dalam memilih paslon didominasi dengan faktor Visi misi &amp; program, Kinerja &amp; pengalaman calon yang tergolong sebagai pemilih rasional sebanyak 53% responden. Adapun golongan perilaku pemilih kritis sebanyak 23% responden, perilaku pemilih tradisional sebanyak 3% responden, dan pemilih skeptis sebanyak 8% responden. Dari hasil proses penelitian menghasilkan suatu kesimpulan bahwa wacana citra dan pembangunan Risma tersebar pada berbagai sikap dan pilihan politik pemilih pemula. Adapun faktor memilih disebabkan oleh sumber daya yang menjadi pengaruh kuat didasarkan pada sumber daya material (Pembangunan), dan sumber daya non material&nbsp; (nilai, ideologi, afeksi, relasi).</p> <p><strong>Kata kunci</strong> : Tri Rismaharini, perilaku, rasional, citra politik, pemilu.</p> Achmad Mahargya Ridhaning Gusti ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39719 Tue, 25 May 2021 15:47:52 +0000 MOTIF PERKAWINAN BELIA PADA REMAJA DI BAWAH UMUR (STUDI SRIMULYO, DAMPIT-KABUPATEN MALANG) https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39401 <p><strong>Abstrak</strong><br>Perkawinan merupakan hal sakral yang di pandang oleh masyarakat. Perkawinan dapat di artikan <br>sebagai bentuk suatu ikatan secara sah yang dilakukan oleh kedua pasangan untuk memilih hidup <br>bahagia. UU No. 16 tahun 2019 tentang perubahan UU Perkawinan No.1 Tahun 1974 pasal 7 <br>menyatakan bahwa batas usia perkawinan bagi pria dan wanita di samaratakan yakni berusia 19 <br>tahun. Penelitian ini di latar belakangi oleh adanya perkawinan belia pada remaja di bawah umur <br>di daerah Srimulyo, Dampit-Kabupaen Malang.Tujuan penelitian ini yakni untuk mengidentifikasi <br>kondisi subjektif dan objektif, alasan tindakan anak, serta motif sebab dan motif tujuan perkawinan <br>belia di Srimulyo, Dampit - Kabupaten Malang. Peneliti menggunakan teori fenomenologi Alfred <br>Schutz untuk di jadikan pisau analisis dalam penelitian ini. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode <br>penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan etnografi Michael H.Agar. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan adanya motif sebab perkawinan belia adanya faktor diri sendiri, faktor ekonomi, faktor lingkungan, faktor akses informasi, dan faktor agama. Selain itu motif tujuan perkawinan belia seperti <br>ingin membangun keluarga bersama pasangannya, ingin memperbaiki tingkat ekonomi, ingin <br>memiliki keturunan, ingin hidup mandiri, dan perkawinan sebagian dari ibadah.<br><strong>Kata Kunci :</strong> Remaja, Perkawinan belia, Keluarga</p> Ayu Wulaningsih, Fransiscus Xaverius Sri Sadewo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39401 Wed, 26 May 2021 14:59:58 +0000 MOTIF JUDI ONLINE (REMI POKER) SEBAGAI TUMPUHAN MATA PENCAHARIAN KELUARGA DI KELURAHAN WIYUNG, SURABAYA https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39871 <p>Abstract<br>Social deviation that is still often found in society is the phenomenon of gambling.<br>Not only is it a hobby of gambling but has become a new profession in the present era. The<br>history of the development of gambling dates back to 2300 BC, the emergence of lottery<br>gambling in ancient China. The gambling profession does not have an income that is certain<br>to be used as a daily livelihood to meet the needs of his family. It can be likened to a family<br>whose life is also at stake. Their welfare depends on uncertain income. The purpose of this<br>study is to identify the background of the research subject who makes online gambling the<br>main profession and to find out the responses of people around the research subject in<br>responding to their profession. The method in this research is a qualitative research using the<br>phenomenological approach of Alfred Schutz's ideas. Alfred Schutz's phenomenology is used <br>to examine the because motive and in order to motive of informants who work as online<br>gamblers. The result of the research is that the online gambling profession appears and can<br>survive because of the historical factor of the player while playing Rummy Poker gambling is<br>said to be profitable, and systematically accessing and playing it is quite easy only requires<br>patience and a strong mentality. The background that influences informants makes online<br>gamblers a profession for their families because the motive comes from the belief in making<br>a more effective living and family background. And in order to motive aims to become an<br>online gambler as a livelihood and meet family needs.<br>Keywords: Online Gamblers, Profession, Motive, Family.</p> Sandi firnando ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39871 Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 KONSTRUKSI RADIKALISME BAGI MAHASISWA CELANA CINGKRANG DAN CADAR DI SURABAYA https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39882 <p>The background of this research is the society's construction of radicalism which is identified<br>with religious attributes, such as sirwal pants and veils. Especially in the campus scope which<br>is the hotbed for the spread of radicalism. Therefore, through the social construction theory of<br>Peter L. Berger, this research explores the construction of radicalism for those who are radically<br>constructed by society, namely students of sirwal pants and veils. So that the purpose of this<br>study is to identify the characteristics and constructs of radicalism according to students in<br>sirwal pants and veils. The qualitative approach used, through observation, interviews and<br>documentation. Meanwhile, the results of this study indicate that there is a potential for some<br>students to lead to radicalism through the projection of the Islamic religious state system.<br>Moreover, students with short pants and veils also construct radicalism as violence, extremism,<br>egocentricity, acts of infidelity, intolerance, deviance, demanding change, countergovernment, projections to hate certain religions, carry the name of Islam and are scientifically<br>oriented. Meanwhile, students of sirwal trousers and veils themselves did not question the<br>radical stigma attached to the use of sirwal pants and veils. However, some have questioned<br>the ambiguity of the idea of radicalism by the government and the state's repressive apparatus.<br>Keywords : Social Construction, Radicalism, Sirwal Pants, Veils.</p> Mohammad Maulana Iqbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39882 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Pola Pembagian Kerja pada Keluarga Buruh Bangunan https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40018 <p>Konstruksi sosial yang diterima oleh masyarakat menempatkan perempuan dalam sektor domestik sedangkan laki-laki dalam sektor publik. Hal tersebut berbeda dalam keluarga buruh bangunan dengan istri yang bekerja sebagai buruh bangunan. Keluarga dengan istri pekerja tentu memiliki pembagian peran yang berbeda antara suami dan istri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor yang melatarbelangi istri bekerja sebagai buruh bangunan, pola pembagian kerja antara suami istri dalam sektor domestik dan publik, serta proses pengambilan keputusan dan pemegang kontrol dalam keluarga. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dan perspektif nurture untuk menganalisis. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi. Lokasi dalam penelitian ini dilakukan kawasan Citraland Surabaya. Subyek penelitian ini adalah pasangan suami istri yang bekerja dalam satu proyek. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan faktor ekonomi yang melatarbelakangi istri bekerja yaitu peningkatan kebutuhan pasca memiliki anak, untuk membayar hutang, dan penghasilan suami yang rendah. Sedangkan faktor non ekonomi yaitu menjaga keharmonisan rumah tangga, merawat suami, dan kebutuhan tambahan tenaga kerja. Terdapat pembagian kerja pada sektor domestik dan melibatkan suami dalam mengerjakan pekerjaan rumah tangga seperti mencuci dan memasak. Sedangkan pembagian kerja pada sektor publik juga melibatkan istri dalam pekerjaan yang berat seperti mengangkat batu bata dan mengayak pasir. Proses pengambilan keputusan melibatkan kedua pihak antara suami dan istri dalam proses diskusi. Selain itu, terdapat pembagian secara adil untuk memegang kontrol atas kekayaan yang dimiliki.</p> Dwi Ramadhania ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40018 Mon, 07 Jun 2021 13:59:03 +0000 DISKURSUS POLA ASUH KELUARGA TIONGHOA https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40233 <p>We are familiar with the entrepreneurial culture of the Chinese ethnic group. A high<br>work ethic is one of the Chinese ethnic identities in the field of entrepreneurship. Of course this<br>has its own process in preserving the entrepreneurial culture. According to Foucault, the<br>preservation process is a discourse in which there is knowledge and power. Knowledge and<br>power cannot be separated from one another. This study aims to determine how Chinese ethnic<br>parenting styles in forming entrepreneurial images in children. This study uses qualitative<br>methods with an archaeological and genealogical perspective by Foucault. The location of this<br>research was conducted in Pacitan. The subjects of this study were ethnic Chinese who owned<br>businesses.<br>The results of this study indicate that Chinese parents are obliged to provide<br>entrepreneurship education to their children from an early age. Entrepreneurship education<br>process is given in stages according to age. Examples are starting from introducing<br>entrepreneurship at an early age to managing business at adulthood. The goal is so that the<br>entrepreneurial culture of the Chinese ethnics will not fade.<br>However, there are slight differences in the socialization of entrepreneurial culture<br>between now and in the past. Entrepreneurship education is still provided, but at this time some<br>Chinese parents do not oblige their children to be entrepreneurs. This is due to the modernity<br>factor, which makes Chinese parents think moderately, in the sense of freeing their children in<br>determining their future jobs.<br>Keywords: Discourse, Entrepreneurship, Chinese</p> Shara Elfani ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40233 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 RASIONALITAS GRADUASI MANDIRI SEBAGAI PENERIMA PKH DI DESA BABADAN KABUPATEN NGANJUK https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40354 <p>Independent graduation is a phenomenon of voluntarily resigning as a recipient of PKH assistance.<br>At the beginning of 2020 there were around 26 PKH recipient families in Babadan Village who had<br>graduated independently. This study aims to determine the rationality of independent graduation as<br>PKH recipients in Babadan village, Nganjuk Regency. The theory used in analyzing this research is<br>James Coleman's theory of rational choice. The research method used is a qualitative method. For the<br>selection of research subjects, the researcher chose a purposive technique. The results of this study<br>indicate that the rationality of PKH recipients in choosing an independent graduation is influenced by<br>socio-economic status, values in society, and sanctions for PKH recipients. PKH recipients who have<br>resources in the form of a good house, rice fields, permanent jobs, and other valuables will easily<br>graduate independently. The social values that exist in the community are also one of the reasons why<br>PKH recipients choose to graduate independently. The community considers poverty to be a bad thing,<br>so when there was socialization of labeling poor families, many PKH recipients graduated<br>independently. Most of the independent graduations are carried out by people who are old because<br>they are afraid of being fined 50 million and going to prison.<br>Keywords: Rationality, PKH, Independent Graduation</p> Lia Riztiana ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40354 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 TIF PEREMPUAN MENEKUNI OLAHRAGA PENCAK SILAT PERSAUDARAAN SETIA HATI DI KABUPATEN MADIUN https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40360 <p>Abstract<br>Pencak silat is one of a tough sport that requires players to have strong physical<br>strength. This research is motivated by the interest of women in Madiun district to get<br>involve the sport of pencak silat. Madiun district currently well known as “Kampung<br>Pesilat” because there are various pencak silat institution that exist and develop in this<br>region. This research focus on women‟s motive in getting involve the sport of pencak silat<br>in Persaudaraan Setia Hati institution. This study uses qualitative research methods. In this<br>study itself uses the phenomenology theory analysis of Alfred Schutz regarding because to<br>motive and in order to motive. The data in this study were obtained in several ways, <br>2<br>namely through observation, interviews, and documentation. Result of the research that has<br>been done concludes that there are two motives, the because to motive and the in order to<br>motive for women choosing to get involve the sport of pencak silat. Because to motive<br>women get involve the sport of pencak silat because of the influence of other people,<br>curiosity, the desire to learn pencak silat in order to protect themselves, and the desire to<br>become an athlete in the sport of pencak silat. Whereas in order to motive women get<br>involve the sport of pencak silat in the future is to increase fraternity, to look for the next<br>generation, and to increase achievement.<br>Keywords : Women, Pencak Silat, Motive</p> Pratama Aditya Ramadhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40360 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 HABITUS KEPATUHAN LARANGAN PERNIKAHAN JILU (SIJI TELU) PADA MASYARAKAT NGANJUK https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40363 <p>Abstract<br>Jilu marriage is a marriage involving the first child (siji) with the third child (ketelu)<br>which is believed that when it is happend, the couple will live a hard life because they face<br>successive calamities and problems. This research was conducted based on a myth that exists in Nganjuk Regency about the prohibition of Jilu's marriage. The Nganjuk people, who<br>are still thick with Javanese culture, have made the ban on Jilu's marriage believed to date<br>even though it has entered the modern era. The strong belief about Jilu's ban has made the<br>public view that Jilu's partner seems to justify the impact that will happen to the couple.<br>This study discusses the compliance habitus of Jilu's marriage ban in the Nganjuk community. This research uses qualitative research methods with the theory analysis Habitus of<br>Pierre Bourdieu. The focus of this research is to see the Jilu partner in gaining social status<br>even though the agents of domination are considered disobedient. The data obtained was<br>carried out by means of observation, interviews and documentation. The results showed<br>that the Jilu pair still had boundary lines in the social space (field) to obtain high social status, the Jilu pair had to have sufficient capital to compete in that area.<br>Keywords: Myth, Marriage, Habitus</p> Amelya Irsyadndi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40363 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Lintrik di Kalangan Akademisi Muslim https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40365 <p>Abstract<br>This research is motivated by the practice of shamanism which is still crowded with visitors in<br>modern times, located in urban areas, namely Jambangan. These customers are dominated by<br>Muslim academics. The purpose of this study is to identify the objective conditions of Muslim<br>academics, identify the reasons for the use of electricity among Muslim academics, and analyze<br>the motives for the cause and motivation of Muslim academics using lintrik. This research method uses qualitative research methods with the perspective of Alfred Schutz's theory of phenomenology. The data obtained was carried out by means of observation, interviews and documentation. The results showed that Muslim academics had intersubjectivity, namely that they considered visiting a shaman as a form of effort / effort while still asking God with the aim of achieving the goals desired by the subject more quickly, the shaman was considered an intermediary<br>between himself and God. Because the motive is, namely due to environmental factors, love<br>problems, career problems, alternative treatments, and deadlocked. in order to motive is namely<br>because it is to save / the integrity of the household, to obtain marital blessing, for relationship /<br>household harmony, to remove pellets, for healing illness, for career interests.<br>Keywords: Lintrik, Season Academic, Shaman</p> Nina Karerina ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40365 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 DISKURSUS KEPERAWANAN DALAM INSTAGRAM (STUDI WACANA AKUN @agrimerinda) https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40697 <p>Abstract<br>The discourse that is scattered on social media raises various problems such as the discourse<br>of virginity. The discourse of virginity that is rife on social media, especially Instagram,<br>makes women as the other party feel disadvantaged, especially in the realm of a patriarchal<br>society. The Instagram account @agrimerinda which was spearheaded by Agri Merinda<br>dismissed the discourse on virginity and the negative stigma attached to non-virgin women<br>and their sexual morality. The purpose of this study was to analyze the discourse on virginity<br>on the @agrimerinda Instagram account. This study used a qualitative method with Michel<br>Foucault's archaeological and genealogical analysis. The results showed that the<br>@agrimerinda account had the power to spread knowledge of sexuality and virginity<br>massively and progressively across all Instagram features which were later agreed upon by<br>its followers. The discourses presented by this account are related to virginity, including<br>knowledge of sexuality (sex education), women's sexual morality, myths and values of<br>virginity. The discourses presented by Agri Merinda aim to change the taboo against nonvirgin women and make the narratives of sexuality and virginity a part of knowledge.<br>Keyword: Discourse, Instagram, Virginity, Sexuality</p> Khosy Mawar Sani ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40697 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 MAKNA STIGMA SOSIAL BAGI DISABILITAS DI DESA SEMEN KECAMATAN PARON KABUPATEN NGAWI https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40700 <p>ABSTRACT<br>Social stigma is a behavior where a person is not accepted in a group due to the<br>belief that the person is against existing norms. Social stigma can lead to exclusion from a<br>person or group. This research is basically motivated by the occurrence of stigma against<br>people with disabilities in Ngawi Regency. The occurrence of disability stigma is certainly<br>caused by various factors that influence it. In this study itself also took the focus of<br>research on the meaning of stigma for disabilities. This study uses Edmund Husserl's<br>phenomenological theory analysis regarding the meaning of stigma based on the<br>experience of disabilities. This study uses qualitative methods by collecting data in the<br>form of observation, interviews and documentation. From the results of the research<br>process, it can be concluded that the factors causing the stigma of disability are none other<br>than physical limitations. The forms of disability stigma include bullying, insults and even <br>2<br>discrimination. Disabilities who are stigmatized do not always feel humiliated because<br>they themselves have their own meaning about the stigma they face.<br>Keywords: Stigma, Disability, Meaning</p> Cahyani Widyastutik ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40700 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 HABITUS SENIMAN WAYANG TOPENG MALANG DI PADEPOKAN ASMORO BANGUN https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40702 <p>ABSTRACT<br>This study addresses associated with habitus artists Wayang Topeng Malang in padepokan<br>Asmoro Bangun. A group of artists that have a culture Pendalungan as the mix of cultures<br>between the ethnicities of Java to Madura. A group of artists Pendalungan that has a blood<br>descendant of mbah Karimun of course there are still thick with the values of the maestro Mask<br>Malang. On the other hand, a group of artists Pendalungan other has a habit of its own in art,<br>because of the different understanding. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the<br>culture Pendalungan in Wayang Topeng Malang Asmoro Bangun and habitus of the actors of his<br>art, which is analyzed through the theory of Habitus Pierre Bordieu. The method used in this<br>research is qualitative approach with ethnographic James P. Spraedly. Location of the research <br>2<br>conducted at padepokan Asmoro Bangun. The subject comes from a group of artists Wayang<br>Topeng Malang Asmoro Bangun is still active. The results of this study show that the artist<br>Wayang Topeng Malang who have breeds breeds of mbah Karimun has habitus berspiritual and<br>actualization, so that can improve the social status in the society. Different is the case with artist<br>Wayang Topeng Malang in padepokan Asmoro Bangun other. This is due to the owned capital<br>is quite limited, so it must work harder to maintain its existence, even though they have a<br>habitus different.<br>Keywords : Habitus, Artist, Wayang Topeng Malang, Pendalungan Society</p> Avita Amelia ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40702 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 MAGIC DI TENGAH PANDEMI; EKONOMI, KESUKSESAN, DAN TINDAKAN https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40704 <p>Abstract</p> <p>The Covid-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on all aspects of society, from social to economic aspects. Banyuwangi as "Santet of Java" gives its own label in the eyes of the community, whether Indonesian society in general or Banyuwangi society itself. With the many magical things labeled in the Banywuangi community, a job as a shaman or visiting a shaman is nothing new in this city. Visiting a magician has the goal of being enlightened so that he can carry out trading activities properly and with direction. This study aims to determine the social and economic impacts that arise due to the Covid-19 pandemic, determine the role of magic during the pandemic and also the use of magic in the trading world of the Banyuwangi community. This study uses a qualitative method using the phenomenological approach of Alfred Schutz. And using Alfred Schutz's theory to find out the motives of people who have jobs as traders to come to Magicians during the pandemic. The results showed that the informants had various family backgrounds, ranging from middle to lower to upper middle families. The informants have the same background as parents who have jobs as traders. During the Covid-19 pandemic overflowing in Indonesia, all aspects of people's lives experienced negative impacts, ranging from economic, social, to other aspects. Especially in terms of trade, especially for the Banyuwangi community, this can be a factor for informants to come to Kyai, they feel that they need a lot of guidance to continue their lives despite the difficulties they experienced during the pandemic. According to Alfred Schutz, this is included in the motive for the action In order To Motives. Meanwhile, they came to Kyai on the grounds that their parents introduced them to them, according to Alfred Schutz this was included in Because Motives. Magic has its own role for traders especially in Banyuwangi. As the City of Santet and with the existence of the Indonesian shaman association, occult things are very attached to the community</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong><em>Keywords</em></strong>: Magic, Trade, Covid-19, Banyuwangi</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Firman Dhino Paraton ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40704 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 KONSTRUKSI MASYARAKAT RUSUNAWA SOMBO, SURABAYA TENTANG AKTIVITAS PENYALAHGUNAAN NARKOBA https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40705 <p>Abstract<br>This study discusses the construction of the Rusunawa Sombo community, Surabaya regarding<br>drug abuse activities. The research is motivated by the large number of drug abuse activities that<br>are "normal" seen and as if the local community agrees. The objectives of this study include 1)<br>Identifying the objective conditions of the Sombo Rusunawa community 2) Identifying the values<br>and norms that exist in the Sombo Rusunawa 3) Identifying the Sombo Rusunawa community<br>understanding of drug abuse activities 4) Identifying the understanding and knowledge of the<br>Sombo Rusunawa community about drugs and its consequences 5) Analyzing the construction of<br>the Rusunawa Sombo community regarding drug abuse activities. The method used in thisresearch<br>is qualitative with the perspective of Peter L. Berger's social construction theory. The data analysis<br>technique uses the Grounded theory technique. The social construction of the Rusunawa Sombo<br>community, Surabaya regarding drug abuse activities occurs in three moments, namely<br>internalization in the form of an understanding of "your business is not my business" socialized<br>within the community. The moment of objectification is in the form of justification for the<br>socialized understanding. Next is a moment of externalization in the form of a repetition of being<br>normal, indifferent and silent when viewing drug abuse activities.<br>Keywords: Social construction, drug abuse activity, society, indifferent</p> Nahdia Arifani ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40705 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 DISKURSUS POLA ASUH KELUARGA TIONGHOA https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40053 <p>Sudah tidak asing lagi jika berbicara mengenai budaya kewirausahaan pada etnis <br>Tionghoa. Etos kerja yang tinggi merupakan salah satu identitas etnis Tionghoa pada<br>bidang kewirausahaan. Tentu hal ini memiliki proses tersendiri dalam melestarikan budaya<br>kewirausahaan tersebut. Menurut Foucault, proses pelestarian tersebut merupakan suatu<br>diskursus yang didalamnya ada pengetahuan dan kekuasaan. Pengetahuan dan kekuasaan<br>tidak dapat dipisahkan satu sama lain. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui<br>bagaimana pola asuh orangtua etnis Tionghoa dalam membentuk citra kewirausahaan pada<br>anak. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan perspektif arkeologi dan<br>genealogi oleh Foucault. Lokasi penelitian ini dilakukan di Pacitan. Subyek penelitian ini<br>adalah etnis Tionghoa yang memiliki usaha. <br>Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa orangtua etnis Tionghoa wajib<br>memberikan pendidikan kewirausahaan kepada anak sejak dini. Proses pendidikan<br>kewirausahaan diberian secara bertahap sesuai dengan umur. Contohnya adalah mulai dari<br>memperkenalkan kewirausahaan pada usia dini hingga memanajemen usaha pada umur<br>dewasa. Tujuannya agar budaya kewirausahaan etnis Tionghoa tidak akan luntur. <br>Namun, ada sedikit perbedaan sosialisasi budaya kewirausahaan antara sekarang<br>dan jaman dulu. Pendidikan kewirausahaan tetap diberikan, tetapi pada saat ini beberapa<br>orangtua etnis Tionghoa tidak mewajibkan anak-anaknya untuk berwirausaha. Hal ini<br>disebabkan oleh faktor modernitas, yang membuat orangtua etnis Tionghoa berpikir<br>moderat, dalam arti membebaskan anaknya dalam menentukan pekerjaannya kelak. <br>Kata Kunci: Diskursus,Kewirausahaan,Tionghoa</p> shara elfani ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40053 Mon, 05 Jul 2021 15:03:12 +0000 PRAKTIK SOSIAL KOMUNITAS PURWO AYU MARDI UTOMO DALAM PEMBANGUNAN DESA KESUGIHAN https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41284 <p>The stream of belief are still experiencing discrimination by the community. This is<br>inversely proportional to what was experienced by the Purwo Ayu Mardi Utomo community,<br>Kesugihan Village, which was able to contribute greatly to village development. This research<br>reveals how the social practices of the Purwo Ayu community in village development by<br>analyzing the habitus, capital and domains. This research is a qualitative research with the<br>perspective of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice The results showed that the habitus<br>community in development underwent a change from the old habitus to the new habitus. The<br>old habit of the community is to always be useful to the community by helping to improve the<br>welfare of the community in preserving the cultural heritage of their ancestors. This makes the <br>2<br>practice of social communities change from the construction of public facilities to cultural<br>development in the form of Javanese language learning activities and musical exercises. The<br>activity was held with the aim that Javanese cultural heritage is maintained and sustainable.<br>The capital used in activities is economic capital in the form of the availability of places and<br>facilities for activities. Social capital in the form of full support from the village government.<br>Cultural capital in the form of knowledge about Javanese culture. Symbolic capital is the oldest<br>belief system with the most followers in Ponorogo Regency. The area used is Kesugihan<br>Village, Pulung District, Ponorogo Regency. The habits and capital owned by the Purwo Ayu<br>community make the community maintain its existence.<br>Keywords: Stream of Belief, Development, Social Practices</p> Ike Dewi Purwanty ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41284 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 KONSTRUKSI SOSIAL TENTANG PERATURAN DESA DALAM UPAYA PENANGGULANGAN POLUSI UDARA https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41408 <p>Abstract<br>This research is motivated by air pollution that continues to occur in Tropodo Village,<br>Krian. Village regulations on air pollution control that have been set are not running optimally. Village regulations concerning air pollution countermeasures that have not been implemented optimally. The purpose of this study was to identify the efforts of the village<br>government in controlling the implementation of village regulations, the objective conditions of the community, the triggers behind the dysfunction of village regulations, and analyze the social construction of tofu factory owners and the community regarding village<br>regulations governing air pollution prevention. This research method uses a qualitative<br>method with a case study approach and is studied using the social construction theory of<br>Peter L. Berger. Data obtained by means of observation, interviews, documentation and audiovisual. The results showed the externalization process by planting the use of plastic <br>2<br>waste as fuel from the previous tofu factory owners. The objectivation process is demonstrated by understanding the characteristics of plastic waste which tend to have a positive<br>impact on the Tropodo economic sector. The internalization process is indicated by the<br>emergence of public awareness about meeting the needs of the economic sector which is far<br>more important than the health sector. Through this social construction, it can be seen that<br>Village Regulation No.06/2014 has not been obeyed by the community, air pollution is still<br>an unresolved problem, and people with ARI in nearby health facilities are dominated by<br>the Tropodo community.<br>Keywords: Air Pollution, Village Regulations, Plastic Waste</p> Yua Gama Jayamagasta ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41408 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 APARATUS IDEOLOGIS MEDIA DAN LEGALISASI GANJA KOMUNITAS LINGKAR GANJA NUSANTARA https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41409 <p>Lingkar Ganja Nusantara (LGN) is a social group that has a cannabis legalization project in&nbsp;Indonesia. LGN's marijuana legalization project is in conflict with the state's anti-cannabis&nbsp;ideology. The form of the marijuana legalization project carried out by LGN is in the form of&nbsp;campaign actions and demonstrations by community members. Periodically, the movement has&nbsp;transformed into a movement that uses basic media. The LGN marijuana legalization&nbsp;ideological movement is growing rapidly as indicated by the increase in the number of LGN&nbsp;followers on social media. This study discusses the ideology of legalizing the LGN marijuana&nbsp;community based in Jakarta through the power of the ideological apparatus that drives their&nbsp;network community. Because the LGN community's marijuana legalization ideology is&nbsp;specific, unique, and critical, a qualitative research on this issue uses the case study method.&nbsp;The results showed that LGN's marijuana legalization ideology has succeeded in forming an&nbsp;imaginary relationship between community members and their new support base. This&nbsp;imaginative relationship is formed because of the power of the ideological apparatus of the&nbsp;media, both mass media and social media.<br>Keywords: Media Ideological Apparatus, Marijuana Legalization, Lingkar Ganja Nusantara</p> Rachmad Febriansyah ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41409 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 STRATEGI BERTAHAN HIDUP M ANTAN TKI PRIA DI PONOROGO (STUDI PADA MANTAN TKI PASCA PULANG DARI LUAR NEGERI) https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41411 <p>Labor issues in Indonesia are still in the spotlight in the midst of society. In fact, there are inequalities in&nbsp;employment. The high number of job seekers is not matched by the large number of jobs. This causes many&nbsp;people to choose shortcuts, such as becoming migrant workers. This phenomenon also occurs in Ponorogo&nbsp;Regency. When I became a migrant worker, people's lives changed little by little. Generally, TKI will leave at&nbsp;productive age and will be full before their productive period ends. This research is a qualitative research with an&nbsp;ethnometodological approach from Harold Garfinkel. This research was conducted in Ponorogo Regency. As for&nbsp;the subjects of the study were former male migrant workers. Data were collected using two techniques, namely&nbsp;primary and secondary. The results of this study indicate that the former TKI in Ponorogo experienced difficulties&nbsp;after returning. One of the difficulties faced by former migrant workers is the economic factor. With his status as&nbsp;the head of the former TKI family, he has a strategy to make ends meet and survive. In this case, there are 3&nbsp;(three) strategies used by them. The strategies are: (a) Relying on the social networks it has. Former migrant&nbsp;workers tend to use the type of kinship social networks and social networks of friendship (b) rely on subsistence&nbsp;alternatives, which means that former migrant workers have other activities besides their main job (c) suppress&nbsp;spending within the family.<br>Keywords: Survival Strategy, TKI, Ponorogo</p> Desi Irma Triasari ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41411 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 RASIONALITAS CALON KEPALA DESA DI PONOROGO MENGUNJUNGI MAKAM BATORO KATONG MENJELANG PILKADES TAHUN 2019 https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41412 <p>The election of village heads in Java is still closely related to the traditions and beliefs<br>that exist in society. Pilgrimage to the grave is one of the traditions of the Javanese people that<br>exist among prospective village heads. Ahead of the 2019 Pilkades, several candidate of village<br>heads in Ponorogo visited the grave of Batoro Katong. The aim of this study is to analyze the<br>rational action from candidate of village head visited the grave of Batoro Katong before the 2019<br>Pilkades. The method of this research is qualitative research with the verstenhen approach. The<br>research subjects are candidate of village heads who visited Batoro Katong's grave before the<br>2<br>2019 Pilkades. The perspective of Max Weber's rationality theory was used as the analysis knife<br>of this research. The results showed that the candidate of village head visited Batoro Katong's<br>grave ahead of the 2019 Pilkades based on rational values and traditional rational actions. The<br>rational action of the religious values of the candidate for village head is to pray for the dead as a<br>religious suggestion whose law is sunnah. Another rational action based on religious values, the<br>candidate for village head, hopes to receive wasilah, karomah and blessings from qarin.. Rational<br>action values politeness because they want to respect the success team's invitation. Meanwhile,<br>traditional rational action is influenced by the meaning of pilgrimage as a Javanese tradition. The<br>candidate of village head also believes in the supernatural powers possessed by Batoro Katong to<br>grant their wish. Keywords: Cakades, Rationality, Pilgrimage, Grave of Batoro Katong</p> Haqia Alfariz Ramadhani ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41412 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 RESISTENSI SANTRI PADA FATWA KIAI https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41448 <p>Islamic boarding schools are places where students learn to gain knowledge and religion, they&nbsp;live in Islamic boarding schools to learn about everyday life, but nowadays Islamic boarding schools&nbsp;are included in the campaign area of political figures to seek votes, because in Islamic boarding&nbsp;schools it is identical if the students will obeying the Kiai's fatwa, this is used as an excuse to&nbsp;seek voices for political actors so that Islamic boarding schools are used as campaign areas in&nbsp;democratic parties. This study aims to identify the Kiai's recommendations for students regarding&nbsp;political choices in 2019, knowing the responses of students and analyzing the motives of students&nbsp;in the 2019 presidential election. This study uses a qualitative method using a phenomenological&nbsp;approach. Alfred Schutz's theory was used to find out the motives of the santri to resist the Kiai's&nbsp;fatwa. The results showed that there were several reasons why students did resistance, namely the&nbsp;family of students who supported other pairs of candidates, and students who felt disturbed by the&nbsp;campaign in the Islamic boarding school environment. santri said that the Islamic boarding school&nbsp;was often visited by political actors to ask for prayers from the Kiai, and continued with campaigns&nbsp;during the teaching and learning process. Kiai gave advice to choose one of the pairs of candidates,&nbsp;namely Prabowo Subianto, but in reality the students did resistance by choosing a candidate pair&nbsp;they believed in.<br>Keywords: Resistance, Islamic boarding schools, President's Choice, Politics.</p> Aniq Ifadah ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41448 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 KONSTRUKSI MASYARAKAT DESA SEMAAN KECAMATAN DASUK KABUPATEN SUMENEP TENTANG PEMBERIAN MAKANAN PENDAMPING ASI DINI PADA BAYI https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41455 <p>Exclusive breastfeeding is a step to reduce bad disasters. However, in reality, the&nbsp;implementation of the exclusive breastfeeding program has not yet reached the target.&nbsp;Local cultural knowledge about complementary feeding is one of the causes of failure to&nbsp;implement the exclusive breastfeeding program. One area that has failed to implement&nbsp;&nbsp;the exclusive breastfeeding program in East Java is Sumenep Regency, precisely in&nbsp;Semaan Village, Dasuk District. Semaan Village is a village where the majority of the&nbsp;people provide complementary foods to babies. This study aims to explain the low&nbsp;implementation of exclusive breastfeeding and the culture of offering complementary&nbsp;foods from an early age to infants. The research location is Semaan Village, Dasuk&nbsp;District, Sumenep Regency. This research is a research approach to the Social&nbsp;Construction theory of Peter L. Berger. Based on the findings of field data, it was found&nbsp;that the failure of the implementation of the exclusive breastfeeding program in Semaan&nbsp;Village was due to the culture of offering complementary foods from an early age to<br>infants. Giving additional food to babies has a specific purpose and this habit has been&nbsp;going on for a long time "noroe cara kona" (based on the way of our ancestors). Based on&nbsp;the construction field terms that emerge, it is the provision of complementary foods to&nbsp;infants which is considered important if the baby is only given breast milk by the mother,&nbsp;it will lack nutrition, in addition, complementary feeding is carried out with the aim of&nbsp;making the baby comfortable, the mothers find it difficult to sleep, and often cry as a&nbsp;result. a sign that the baby is hungry, so that the baby feels comfortable and sleeps well,<br>the baby is given additional food. In addition, there is also parental intervention&nbsp;(grandmother) in the mother's decision making in providing complementary foods for&nbsp;her baby.<br>Keywords: Exclusive Breastfeeding, Complementary Food, Baby.</p> Mega Andhika Sutiana ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41455 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 PEMANFAATAN BANTUAN PKH BAGI MASYARAKAT PENERIMA BANTUAN DI DESA SIDOREJO KABUPATEN SIDOARJO https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41460 <p>Poverty is a condition of economic inability to meet the needs of the daily standard of<br>living of the average community in an area. This condition of poverty is characterized by low<br>daily income received to be allocated to basic daily needs. This study aims to identify poor<br>families who are recipients of the Program Keluarga Harapan or PKH assistance in utilizing<br>the assistance in Sidorejo Village, Sidoarjo Regency. Describe the allocation of aid funds, the<br>dependence of beneficiaries on the assistance provided and explain the real and unanticipated<br>functions in the utilization of the Program Keluarga Harapan assistance. The method used in<br>this research is qualitative with a participant observation approach, namely the researcher is<br>involved in the daily activities of the subject. The results showed that the aid had been<br>distributed to underprivileged families. However, in terms of utilization, the lack of education<br>caused problems to arise such as improper use of aid funds and also many parties trying to<br>obtain unilateral benefits. This is a latent function found in this study.<br>Keywords: Utilization, Program Keluarga Harapan, Function</p> Rr Diana Febrianti ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41460 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 KONSTRUKSI PEREMPUAN TERHADAP IMPLEMENTASI RANCANGAN UNDANGUNDANG PENGHAPUSAN KEKERASAN SEKSUAL https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41461 <p>Humans are created in pairs between men and women, often in society, men and women are<br>differentiated based on gender or what we are more commonly known as gender bologically. The<br>background of sexual violence, which starts with the perspective of each person differentiating on<br>the basis of gender, causes frequent sexual harassment in society. Sexual violence in society is<br>increasing over time, so there is a need for a solution to overcome this problem, one of which is a<br>rule that enforces every case of sexual violence so that it does not happen again in society. The<br>regulation in question is the Draft Law on the Elimination of Sexual Violence. The purpose of this<br>study is to determine the government's efforts in dealing with sexual harassment in society, to identify<br>other solutions in overcoming sexual violence, to analyze women's construction of the PKS Bill in<br>addressing the problem of sexual violence. This study uses a qualitative method with a perspective,<br>the researcher tries to describe and interpret the conditions or circumstances in society. The results<br>of this study are divided into three discussions, namely in the political, social and legal fields. In the<br>political field, the opportunity to enter the political sphere is increasingly open, women can nominate<br>regional heads, legislative members or other positions. In the social sector, it is hoped that this<br>regulation can reduce the number of cases of sexual violence in the public sphere. This rule<br>guarantees women who often have activities outside the home so that they do not get harassed by<br>men. By providing a deterrent effect for perpetrators who often sexually harass women in public<br>places such as buses, terminals, markets, malls, etc. In the field of law, it is hoped that it can suppress<br>sexual violence against women. Not only law, but enforcement must also be monitored so that it is<br>in accordance with what is expected, do not let the law only apply to the lower class society, while<br>cases that befall the upper class are often negligent and are not investigated, so that people's<br>perceptions of the law will increase and society will comply with any rules made by the state.<br>Keywords: Gender, Law, Women's Construction, Sexual Violence.</p> Yudha Guruh Trianggono ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41461 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 MOTIF PEMBENTUKAN YAYASAN PEDULI KASIH ANAK BERKEBUTUHAN KHUSUS https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41462 <p>This research aims to find out the motives of the cause and the goal of the establishment&nbsp;of Yayasan Peduli Kasih that focus on children with special needs. This study is to identify&nbsp;the identity of the founder of the Foundation and Know the goal of the Yayasan Peduli Kasih&nbsp;established. The interesting about this research is the Founder does not have an outstanding&nbsp;educational background but willing to retire early as a doctor and as a lecturer. The method&nbsp;that used for the study is qualitative with a phenomenological approach to Alfred Schutz's&nbsp;perspective which refers to the cause motive and the goal motive. The subjects in this study<br>consisted of four subjects. The process of collecting data with in-depth interviews, the&nbsp;website, and social media of the founder.The results obtained in this study are the motives for&nbsp;the establishment of Yayasan Peduli Kasih, whis is the founder has a high education so that&nbsp;he has a good social networking, Experience attending Seminar in America so he is moved to&nbsp;2&nbsp;empower disabilities, collecting 'good charity', feeling the challenges of raising children with&nbsp;disabilities and he has experiences of deterioration in home life then the goal of establishment&nbsp;this Yayasan Peduli Kasih abk is the founder sees that empowering disability is an<br>opportunity to build a broader social network internationally.&nbsp;<br>Keywords: Phenomenological, Children with Special Needs, Yayasan Peduli Kasih that focus&nbsp;on children with special needs.</p> Naomi Pratiwi Tuwankotta ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41462 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 MOTIF ORANG TUA MENYEKOLAHKAN ANAKNYA DI SSB GEN-B https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41476 <p>The football school is a means of fostering youth football. In this research, the object of this research is SSB Gen-B in Mojokerto City. SSB Gen-B has its own charm for parents who want to send their children to SSB, because the people of Mojokerto and its surroundings have succeeded in producing talented football players who are now members of Indonesian professional clubs. Although SSB Gen-B is expensive, it is not a problem for parents to support their child's talent and interest in football. The purpose of this study was to identify the background and goals to be achieved by the research subjects in sending their children to SSB Gen-B. The method in this study is a qualitative research using Alfred Schutz's phenomenological approach. Alfred Schutz's phenomenology is used to study the because motive and in order to motive of the informants who are parents of SSB Gen-B students. The results of the study are because the informant sends his children to SSB Gen-B because the child is influenced by the association in the surrounding environment, the habits of parents related to football, the child is motivated by his friends, the coercion of parents, and the quality<br>of SSB Gen-B which already proven. Of course, every action of a person has a predetermined purpose. Their in order to motive in sending their children to SSB Gen-B wants the child to become a professional soccer player, teach discipline, introduce the child to a new environment, and maintain the child's physical fitness.<br>Keywords : Gen-B Soccer School, Parents, Social Motive</p> Valdo Indra Pratama ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41476 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 JARINGAN PEREDARAN NARKOBA DI KALANGAN REMAJA KOTA SURABAYA https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41477 <p>The large number of teenagers as drug users is caused by the distribution of drugs that<br>is increasing and spreading everywhere. Drugs are also easy to buy, in addition to that due<br>to global policies regarding regulations that suppress drug trafficking and trafficking.<br>Drug users among teenagers, especially high school students are found and this is the<br>highest level of juvenile delinquency. Economic problems can also influence teenagers to<br>become drug dealers. The purpose of this study is to identify how the objective conditions<br>of drug network actors are, identify the status and role of each actor, and identify<br>interactions between drug network status among adolescents. This study uses a qualitative<br>approach with an ethnomethodological perspective, the researcher uses an ethnographic<br>model and the theory of the Delinquency Subculture by Albert K. Cohen. The data<br>obtained were carried out by participatory observation and in-depth interviews. The<br>results of this study indicate that the factors that influence adolescents to deviate are<br>environmental and economic factors, the social network formed is an informal social<br>network because it is formed from integration between friends.<br>Keywords: Network, Drugs, Teenager</p> Lintang Sarashaty Prameswary ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/41477 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 MOTIF PENANAMAN RELIGIOUS CULTURE DI SMPN 3 TUBAN https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42000 <p>Religious culture is an act of habituation that has religious values. The cultivation of<br>religious culture in schools has a role in shaping the character of students. In general, religious<br>activities occur in schools with the status of religious schools. However, one of the schools in<br>Tuban is SMPN 3 Tuban, which is a public and state school that pays special attention and<br>has its own characteristics in inculcating religious culture. This study aims to uncover the<br>motives for planting religious culture at SMPN 3 Tuban. This study uses qualitative research<br>methods with phenomenological analysis from the perspective of Alfred Schutz. The data<br>collection of this research was carried out using observation, interviews and documentation.<br>Based on the phenomenological perspective of Alfred Schutz in this study, it shows because<br>of the motive (causal motive) and the sequence of motives (destination motive). Because the<br>motive for cultivating religious culture is that the condition of the school is still minimal from<br>religious values. Starting from these conditions, one of the teachers was moved to make<br>changes by fostering a religious culture. The motive of the goal is to improve the practice of<br>religious teachings, improve reading and understanding of the Qur'an and the Bible, as well<br>as good morals.<br>Keywords: motive, cultivation, and religious culture.</p> Nurul Hidayah ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42000 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 FAKTOR FAKTOR SOSIAL YANG MEMPENGARUHI TINGKAT LITERASI BACA TULIS SISWA MTS SALAFIYAH KEREK https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42002 <p>Abstract<br>Literacy reading and writing is the most basic literacy. As a student, every student must have good literacy skills. It is not enough just to be able to read and write, but also to be able to understand the meaning of reading and arrange the text into good writing. According to data from the Ministry of Education and Culture, the national average literacy index is still in the low category. These problems then made this research conducted. Based on Emile Durkheim's theory of social solidarity and Daniel Lerner's modernization theory, it is found that there are social factors that affect students' literacy. These social factors include the intensity of parental involvement, the intensity of socialization, the intensity of reinforcement, and the intensity of the use of mass media. This research is then used to prove whether these social factors really affect the<br>literacy level of the students of Mts Salafiyah Kerek. Using quantitative associative research methods with regression analysis techniques. It was found that simultaneously or simultaneously these social factors affected students' literacy by 36%. If independently between these social factors, the intensity of parental involvement, the intensity of socialization and the intensity of the use of mass media have a positive and significant influence on students' literacy. Meanwhile, the intensity of reinforcement was declared to have no effect on the literacy of the students of Mts Salafiyah Kerek.<br>Key Word : Literacy, Social Factors, Reading, Writing.</p> Maulana Firdasu Ferdiansyah ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42002 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 PENGALAMAN LAKI – LAKI SINGLE PARENT DALAM MENJALANKAN FUNGSI DOMESTIK PASCA PERCERAIAN DI KABUPATEN BLITAR https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42006 <p>Divorce is basically a break in the marital relationship between husband and wife due<br>to various causes. This research is motivated by the high number of divorce cases which are<br>dominated by the wife's lawsuit. So that the number of single parent males is increasing.<br>This study focuses on the experiences of single parent men in carrying out domestic<br>functions after divorce. This research was conducted in Nglegok Village, Nglegok District,<br>Blitar Regency. The subjects in this study were selected by purposive sampling which<br>included single parent males with an age range of 30 to 45 years and had child custody, and<br>had been divorced for a minimum of two years with a legal divorce background. Data<br>collection techniques were obtained through observations, interviews and<br>documentation.This study uses a qualitative research method with the phenomenological<br>perspective of Edmund Husserl. Edmund Husserl's phenomenological approach looks at the<br>world of each individual's consciousness to find meaning from everyday life experiences.<br>The results show that single parent men have awareness in carrying out domestic functions<br>after divorce. All domestic functions ranging from cooking, cleaning the house to raising<br>children are done independently. As a single parent man, he tries to eliminate a bad image<br>from the community regarding the ability to do work on domestic functions in the postdivorce family. The status of a single parent male interprets it as the duty and responsibility<br>of being the head of the family as well as the head of the household.<br>Keywords : Single Parent Male, Domestic Function, Post Divorce</p> Nina Anggraeni ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42006 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 MODAL SOSIAL DALAM PEMBERDAYAAN MASYARAKAT DI DESA PURWOSARI KECAMATAN PURWOSARI KABUPATEN BOJONEGORO https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42007 <p>Community empowerment is one approach in development that uses social aspects to<br>improve the economic aspects of the community. The social aspect that is commonly used in<br>community empowerment is social capital. In social capital there are elements in the form of<br>values and norms, beliefs, and social networks that are used to achieve empowerment goals.<br>The purpose of this study is to explain the role of the elements of social capital in the process<br>of community empowerment. This research was conducted in Purwosari Village, Purwosari<br>District, Bojonegoro Regency. This study uses a qualitative method with the perspective of<br>Fukuyama's social capital theory. The subjects in this study were selected purposively which<br>included the village head, head of village welfare, head of RT, head of BUMDes, head of subdistrict empowerment, and members of the empowerment community. Data collection<br>techniques in the form of interviews, observations, and documentation. The data that has been <br>collected was analyzed using the Miles and Huberman model which consists of data reduction,<br>data presentation, and drawing conclusions. The results showed that a value of sincerity and<br>norms of habits help to play a role as a common identity that binds members of the community<br>in forming binding social capital. Trust serves as the basis for building cooperation with other<br>parties in an effort to form a bridging social capital. Social networks play a role in expanding<br>cooperation by involving various parties to form linking social capital.<br>Keywords: elements of social capital, roles, community empowerment</p> Ridwan Arma Subagyo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42007 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 FENOMENOLOGI NILAI RAPOR SISWA TUNAGRAHITA DI JOMBANG https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42008 <p>This study aims to understand the meaning of mentally retarded students' report cards.<br>Mentally retarded students are students who experience intelectual ability below average, so<br>they need special education. Special schools (SLB) are formal educational institutions<br>specifically for mentally retarded students. The output of SLB is usually in the form of report<br>cards. The report card value is a collection of student learning outcomes for one semester.<br>Interestingly, this study shows a lack of parental participation in the report card scores of<br>mentally retarded students, even though these report cards have deep meaning for their<br>teachers. This research method is qualitative with Edmund Husserl's phenomenological<br>approach as an intentionality in the subject's experience. The research location is centered in<br>Tunas Harapan 1 Special School in Jombang as one of the most popular special schools in<br>Indonesia. The results of this study indicate that there are three meanings of the value of the<br>mentally retarded students' report cards for the SLB teacher. Namely, the meaning of the<br>demands of the teaching profession, students' intellectual abilities, and social manipulation.<br>Keyword : Phenomenology of Report Cards, Mentally Impaired Students, Teachers,<br>Jombang</p> Siti Mukharomah ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42008 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analisis Diskursus Rasisme Mahasiswa Papua di Kota Surabaya https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42009 <p>The purpose of this study to analyze racism speech against Papuan students in<br>Surabaya, using the concepts and theory of Foucault's power of knowledge and Foucauldian<br>analysis methods. Data analysis techniques by looking at the statements of the subject either by<br>means of interviews or through statements in the media. The results of this study produce eight<br>discourses that reflect the ideology of the subject. Official Discourse First, the official <br>government discourse "Special Autonomy", "Development", "Armed Criminal Groups /<br>terrorists", this official discourse legitimizes through accelerated development and marginalizes<br>opposition groups. Second, the discourse of the central political elite "Papua is Conducive",<br>"Justice", "Unity", "Special Autonomy", "Comprehensive Attention", "Papua is Part of the<br>Integral of the Republic of Indonesia", "Autonomy as a Solution", political elites address victims<br>opportunist sumultan. When, racists "Monkey" "Provocation", "Hoak", a group that reproduces<br>the discourse of political racism. Fourth, the discourse of the pro-integration society; "Unity",<br>"Love of Peace", "Papua is part of Indonesia", the pro-integration movement wants to remain<br>within the framework of the Republic of Indonesia. Another alternative discourse, continued<br>fifth, is the discourse of student victims of "We Are God's Creations, Not Monkeys",<br>"Reactionary Organizations", "Justice", the alternative discourse of victims rejecting<br>abnormalities and demanding constitutional enforcement. Sixth, the discourse of the Papuan<br>Student Alliance (PSA) "Injustice", "Reject Special Autonomy", "Free Papua", the PSA<br>movement of subversion of the dominant ideology, as well as the free Papua refreedom<br>movement. The goal is the discourse of the Papuan anti-racism "Special Autonomy After Free<br>Papua", "We Are Not a Monkey Nation, We Are Human", "Mobilization", the discourse of the<br>Papuan people's aspirations for emancipation from the victims of discourse. eighth Counter<br>discourses objectively "International Issues", "Victims of Discourse", "Human Rights / HR",<br>"New Kind Of Nationalism", "Injustice", "This Nation Does Not Like History", a counter<br>discourse from the views of intellectuals from the margins of power. In this research, the racism<br>utterance of "Monkey" is an entry point in the analysis of the struggle between dominant<br>ideologies and ideologies of subordination as well as counter discourses.<br>Key words: Discourse, Power / Knowledge. Monkey Racism, Struggle Ideology</p> Yanius Kogoya ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42009 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 KONSTRUKSI PEDAGANG TOKO KELONTONG TERHADAP MINIMARKE https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42010 <p>The goverment of Kelurahan Ngagel Rejo in 2016 reported that 18 minimarkets were operating<br>in the area. The presence of many minimarkets operating in Ngagel Rejo has an impact on<br>grecery traders who have been operating for a long time. This study aims to determine how far<br>the constructions of thought that has been built since the establishment of the minimarket for<br>grocery store traders. The research location in Pasar Krukah, Ngagel Rejo, Wonokromo,<br>Surabaya City. This study uses a qualitative approach using the prespective analysis of Peter L.<br>Berger’s social construction theory. The results of this study indicate that the grocery traders in<br>Pasar Krukah have been distrupted by the pre and post-operation conditions of minimarket.<br>Minimarket for grocer is considered as friend or foe. This situation also forces the grocery<br>traders to mutually solidify with the situation of fellow grocery traders. On the one hand, they<br>also need to reproduce their business strategy, in an effort to adapt to the presence of a<br>minimarket.<br>Keywords: Grocery trader, minimarket, social construction, and business strategy.</p> Moch Syamsul Hadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42010 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 POTRET KEPEMIMPINAN TRANSFORMASIONAL SEKOLAH DI SMA NEGERI 1 SUMBERREJO, BOJONEGORO https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42045 <p>Leadership is an ability or strength within a person to lead and influence others in terms of work.<br>In leadership education, what is needed today is a leader who has a basis in cultural and religious<br>values who will be able to anticipate all problems and changes that occur in the world of education,<br>especially for progress achieved outside the school system. Therefore, the most effective<br>leadership style in application to school organizations is the Transformational Leadership style.<br>Transformational leaders are able to bring about change within each individual involved or for the<br>entire organization to achieve higher performance. In an application to a transformational leader,<br>he must have high charismatic, broad intellectual, and the ability to motivate his subordinates. This<br>study uses a qualitative descriptive approach in the perspective of Max Weber's theory of authority.<br>Weber explained that there are three types of authority in society. The First is the Legal Authority,<br>the Second is the Traditional Authority, and the last is the Charismatic Authority. And from this <br>2<br>research, the leader in this school is more charismatic. Charisma is a very special leader. Weber<br>sociologically describes charismatic as an acknowledgment of the followers of a leader, of a<br>privilege. Weber said that charismatic leadership is a type of leadership that is qualified, special<br>and superior, and it has become a validity that is recognized by subordinates. Leaders who have a<br>charismatic authority model must also have a vision and mission that can inspire people or their<br>subordinates.<br>Keywords: Leadership, Transformational, Charismatic, School</p> Laili Rohmatul Ula ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42045 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Rasionalitas Pasangan Usia Subur Memilih Metode Kontrasepsi Jangka Panjang Pada Masa Pandemi Di Desa Sumberkarang https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42622 <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Penggunaan Metode Kontrasepsi Jangka Panjang (MKJP) memiliki banyak manfaat. Pada masa pandemi akseptor MKJP mengalami peningkatan yang signifikan. Peningkatan akseptor MKJP terjadi di Kampung KB Percontohan Desa Sumberkang. Menurut data laporan Petugas Lapangan KB Kecamatan Dlanggu, peningkatan akseptor MKJP mencapai dua kali lipat dari tahun sebelumnya. Jumlah&nbsp; akseptor MKJP diperkirakan akan terus bertambah. Peningkatan akseptor MKJP terjadi selama pandemi Covid-19. Hal ini membuat ketertarikan peneliti untuk melakukan penelitian. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi rasionalitas pasangan usia subur memilih MKJP pada masa pandemi. Subyek penelitian dipilih menggunakan teknik <em>purposive sampling</em>. Peneliti menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan fenomenologi. Penelitian ini menggunakan data primer dan sekunder yang berkaitan dengan fokus penelitian. Teknik analisis data dalam penelitian ini menggunakan teknik interaktif Miles dan Huberman. Penelitian ini menggunakan pisau analisis teori rasionalitas Max Weber untuk menjelaskan fenomena yang terjadi. Menurut Max Weber, ada empat macam tindakan rasional yaitu tindakan rasional instrumental, tindakan rasional nilai, tindakan affektual, tindakan tradisional. Hasil penelitian ini yaitu kondisi perekonomian keluarga menjadi pertimbangan memillih MKJP. Kondisi perekonomian mendorong pasangan usia subur untuk membatasi jumlah anak dan mencegah kehamilan tidak direncanakan. Tindakan tersebut menurut Max Weber merupakan tindakan rasional instrumental. Pasangan usia subur menolak KB atas dasar nilai agama dan nilai anak termasuk dalam tindakan rasional nilai. Tindakan affektual yang dilakukan pasangan usia subur pengguna MKJP yaitu perasaan takut terhadap penyebaran viru corona. Pasangan usia subur mempertimbangkan saran dari saudara dan tetangga termasuk tindakan tradisional.</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci: </strong>MKJP, Pandemi Covid-19, Teori Rasionalitas</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The use of long-term contraceptive methods (MKJP) has many benefits. During the pandemic, MKJP acceptors experienced a significant increase. The increase in MKJP acceptors occurred in the KB Pilot Village, Sumberkarang Village. According to data from the KB Field Officer in Dlanggu District, the increase in MKJP acceptors has doubled from the previous year. The number of MKJP acceptors is expected to continue to grow. The increase in MKJP acceptors occurred during the Covid-19 pandemic. This makes researchers interested in conducting research. This study was conducted to identify the rationality of couples of childbearing age choosing MKJP during the pandemic. Research subjects were selected using purposive sampling technique. Researchers used qualitative methods with a phenomenological approach. This study uses primary and secondary data related to the research focus. The data analysis technique in this study used the interactive technique of Miles and Huberman. This study uses Max Weber's theory of rationality analysis to explain the phenomena that occur. According to Max Weber, there are four kinds of rational action, namely instrumental rational action, value rational action, affective action, and traditional action. The result of this study is that the family's economic condition is a consideration in choosing MKJP. Economic conditions encourage couples of childbearing age to limit the number of children and prevent unplanned pregnancies. The action according to Max Weber is an instrumental rational action. Couples of childbearing age refuse family planning on the basis of religious values ​​and the value of the child is included in the value rational act. Affectual actions taken by couples of childbearing age using MKJP are feelings of fear of the spread of the corona virus. Couples of childbearing age consider suggestions from relatives and neighbors including traditional actions.</p> <p><strong>Key Word: </strong>Long-term contraceptive methods, Covid-19 pandemic, Theory of rationality</p> Rizky Sintiah Putri, Fransiscus Xaverius Sri Sadewo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42622 Tue, 17 Aug 2021 06:28:43 +0000 modal sosial, relokasi pasar MODAL SOSIAL SEBAGAI STRATEGI PEDAGANG DALAM MEMPEROLEH LAPAK PASCA RELOKASI PASAR WAGE BARU NGANJUK https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42624 <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Kebijakan pemerintah dalam hal pembangunan daerah saat ini mengarah pada kondisi sosial yang terus maju kearah modernitas. Beberapa upaya pembangunan yang dilakukan salah satunya adalah revitalisasi pasar. Kebijakan ini telah tercantum dalam Undang-undang perdagangan nomor 7 tahun 2014 yang membahas mengenai pembangunan pasar dilakukan di setiap daerah dengan tujuan untuk meningkatkan kualitas pengelolaan pasar, memberikan fasilitas yang baik, dan tersedianya produk yang berkualitas dengan harga yang bersaing. Salah satu progam yang dilakukan adalah kebijakan relokasi pasar wage Nganjuk yang terealisasi pada tahun 2018. Namun kebijakan relokasi ini tidak sepenuhnya diterima baik oleh pedagang dikarenakan kios yang diberikan tidak sesuai dengan kebutuhan pedagang serta relokasi berdampak pada menurunnya pendapatan pedagang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana modal sosial pedagang yang digunakan sebagai strategi untuk memperoleh kios. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah jenis penelitian kualtatif dengan analisis data menggunakan teori modal sosial menurut Pierre Bordieu. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan jika pedagang menggunakan modal sosial untuk kepentingannya memperoleh kios dengan cara memanfaatkan relasi-relasi dengan pihak-pihak yang memiliki wewenang untuk mengontrol dan memberi keputusan. Kedua pihak telah sepakat untuk bekerja sama sehingga keduanya saling mendapatkan keuntungan karena kedekatan personal.</p> <p><strong>Kata kunci :</strong> Kebijakan relokasi, modal sosial, pedagang</p> Ervita Nurva Setya Ningrum ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42624 Mon, 23 Aug 2021 12:21:35 +0000 Perubahan fungsi Uang tunai ke non-Tunai Melalui Aplikasi Smartphone (Studi Fenemenologi Gaya Belanja) https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42138 <p>Bermodalkan smartphone yang digunakan user/manusia dalam keseharian ditunjang pula dengan fasilitas internet<br>yang semakin luas, user/manusia dapat mencoba suatu bentuk usaha yang dapat ditawarkan kepada konsumen<br>termasuk dalam interaksi jual belinya, salah satunya dengan menyediakan fitur pembayaran Non-Tunai. Adanya fitur<br>pembayaran non-tunai ini mengindikasikan terjadinya perubahan fungsi uang sebagai pembayaran tunai ke non-tunai<br>melalui aplikasi smartphone, salah satunya dapat dilihat dari mahasiswa Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Hukum Universitas<br>Negeri Surabaya yang menggunakan aplikasi pada smartphone untuk metode pembayaran non tunai. Fenomena<br>tersebut menunjukan bahwa kemudahan akses dalam bertransaksi berimbas digaya belanja di masyarakat, masyarakat<br>semakin mudah mengeluarkan uangnya tanpa perhitungan kebermanfaatkan dari mereka gunakan. Dengan<br>menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif. Penulis melakukan terhadap 28 Narasumber dari Mahasiswa Fakultas Ilmu Sosial <br>dan Hukum, Universitas Negeri Surabaya melalui Wawancara dengan analisis interaktif. Adanya Narasumber tersebut <br>diharapkan mampu mendeskripsikan terkait dengan ucapan maupun aktivitas (tingkah laku) informan oleh peneliti,<br>peneliti berusaha menjawab bagaimana motif belanja pada mahasiswa UNESA yang melakukan Perubahan Fungsi<br>Uang Tunai Ke Non-Tunai Melalui Aplikasi Smartphone dari perspektif teori Fenomenologi. Hasil dari pembahasan<br>disimpulkan bahwa yang menjadi motif mahasiswa menggunakan pembayaran cashlees (Non-Tunai) adalah cashback,<br>dorongan atau ajakan dari lingkungannya maupun dari kerabat dekat, serta influence dari konten-konten dalam media<br>sosial. Sedangkan in orderto motive, yaitu: mampu mempersingkat pemanfaatan waktu (efesiensi) dalam pembayaran,<br>mengikuti perkembangan teknonologi dan infomrasi di masa digitalisasi (modernitas), penggunaan alat pembayaran<br>non-tunai juga mempermudah manajemen keuangan dari Mahaisiswa.</p> muhamad aji wicaksono ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42138 Mon, 30 Aug 2021 15:20:12 +0000 MOTIF ORANGTUA MENYEKOLAHKAN ANAKNYA DI LUAR ZONASI DI KOTA SURABAYA https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42882 <p>Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentiikasi dan mendeskipsikan tentang motif orangtua menyekolahkan anaknya diluar Zonasi di Kota Suabaya. Penerapan sistem zonasi pada kebijakan PPDB tidak sesuai dengan harapan wali murid. Karena calon peserta didik baru merasa yang memiliki semangat tinggi dalam belajar, memperoleh nilai UN bagus tidak bisa sekolah di sekolah negeri sesuai dengan cita-cita dan harapan dari mereka. Peneliti mendeskripsikan tentang because motive dan in order to motive orangtua menyekolahkan anaknya di luar zonasi di Kota Surabaya. Peneliti menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan fenomenologi Alfred Schutz meliputi motif Because Motive diantaranya kualitas lingkungan sekolah, factor orangtua dan ketersediaan bangku kosong. Sedangkan Motif In Order motive diantaranya harapan diterima di PTN yang berkualitas dan dapat mengawasi anaknya lebih maksimal. Sehingga saran yang dapat peneliti berikan pemerintah diharapkan adanya peninjauan ulang system zonasi yang dapat menekan stigma negative di masyarakat.</p> zusni iqbalur roza ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42882 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 09:08:26 +0000 Praktik Sosial Kolektor Keris Di Kabupaten Jombang https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42931 <p>Keris sebagai identitas bangsa, khususnya masyarakat Jawa tidak lagi dipercaya oleh masyarakatnya sendiri. Keris menjadi sebuah fenomena saat ini karena posisinya yang berada diantara benda pusaka yang bersifat mistis dengan masyarakat yang positivis. Pemaknaan keris tersebut pun beragam, beberapa kolektor memanfaatkan fungsi keris sesuai dengan tuah yang ada dalam keris. Sehingga orang yang memaknai keris itu bertuah dipandang oleh masyarakat sebagai orang yang menyimpang dari norma agama. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif deskriptif dengan analisis teori praktik sosial Pierre Bourdieu. Penelitian ini menemukan ada banyak kolektor yang mempercayai hingga memanfaatkan tuah keris. Peneliti mengelompokkan temuan tersebut kedalam tiga kategori kepercayaan terhadap keris, yakni sebagai pesugihan, pengaruh derajat serta dapat mendatangkan ajal. Kemudian dari pemaknaan tersebut berkaitan pula dengan masyarakat santri dan masyarakat positivis dalam mempengaruhi posisi keris saat ini. Temuan lainnya dalam penelitian ini bagaimana kolektor melakukan praktik terhadap pemaknaan keris tersebut, termasuk habitus, modal serta ranah kolektor keris. Kolektor membangun sendiri modal-modal yang dimiliki untuk ikut bersaing ke ranah perkerisan.</p> Feyzar Nur Fadli, Arief Sudrajat ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/42931 Wed, 22 Sep 2021 13:21:24 +0000 Strategi Buruh Perempuan dalam Memperjuangkan Hak-hak Normatif pada PT Gorom Kencana Surabaya https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39187 <p>Talking about female labor certainly can not be separated from its normative rights. But in fact, <br>there are still many companies whose majority of the female workforce has not fully <br>implemented and fulfilled the normative rights of female workers, one of which is PT Gorom <br>Kencana. According to Marxist Feminism it is caused by capitalism that dominates the structure <br>of people's lives. So that makes women workers carry out strategies to fight for normative rights. <br>This research aims to find out how the strategy of female workers at PT Gorom Kencana in <br>fighting for normative rights. This research uses qualitative methods with a Marxist feminism <br>perspective. The location of this research was conducted at PT Gorom Kencana Surabaya. The <br>subject of this study was the female laborer of PT Gorom Kencana. The results of this study <br>show that the strategy carried out by female workers of PT Gorom Kencana in fighting for <br>normative rights is divided into two forms, namely closed and open strategies. The closed <br>strategy is to gather female workers who have the same goal, invite other female workers to join <br>the union, hold meetings, discussions and follow the briefing and open strategy is to take action <br>in front of the PT Gorom Kencana building, conduct reports on the government bureaucracy, <br>publish on social media and international news pages. In the fight for normative rights, female <br>workers also experience constraints caused by internal and external factors. Internal factors are <br>personal factors that cause workers can not participate in the fight for normative rights such as <br>family events, sudden affairs and falling ill. While external factors are factors caused from <br>outside the personal of female workers such as patriarchal society environment and lack of <br>attention from government bureaucracy.<br><strong>Keywords</strong> : <em>Strategy, Women’s Labour, Normative Rights</em></p> Amalia Rizki Putri Pradita, Pambudi Handoyo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39187 Wed, 21 Apr 2021 14:31:35 +0000 MOTIF SOSIAL BERGABUNG PADA KOMUNITAS PERDAMAIAN YIPC JAWA TIMUR https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39771 <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Berangkat dari realitas hubungan umat beragama, masyarakat sering kali dihadapkan pada konflik </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">yang mengatasnamakan agama. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Konflik atas nama agama tersebut, mengundang beberapa </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">masyarakat termasuk pemuda untuk ikut andil dalam merawat keberagaman, dengan tujuan </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">meminimalisir </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">konflik </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">atas agama. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Kepedulian terhadap keberagaman agama, dituangkan </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">oleh pemuda melalui bergabung komunitas YIPC JATIM. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Komunitas YIPC JATIM, sebagai media </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">bagi pemuda untuk melakukan kegiatan yang bersifat interfaith. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">bertujuan untuk melihat apa saja motif yang dimiliki oleh pemuda Jawa Timur terhadap keinginan </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">untuk bergabung dengan komunitas tersebut. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Penelitian ini bersifat kualitatif deskriptif dengan menggunakan</span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">pisau analisis dari fenomenologi Alfred Schutz yang mengacu pada motif sebab dan motif tujuan. </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Teknik perolehan data pada penelitian ini dilakukan secara online yaitu: observasi online, wawancara </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">online, dan dokumentasi. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Berdasarkan temuan data yang telah dianalis, peneliti dapat menarik </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">beberapa mengenai motif sebab dan motif yang dimiliki oleh anggota YIPC </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">JATIM. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Motif sebab lain: lingkungan keluarga dan sekitar, adanya cerita dimasa dahulu </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">mengenai </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">konflik </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">atas nama agama, menjalankan ajaran agama, kajian mata kuliah perbandingan </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">agama, dan mengisi waktu luang. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Sedangkan, motif tujuan ada dua antara lain: terciptanya </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">lingkungan masyarakat mendatang yang harmonis, dan YIPC JATIM sebagai media bersama untuk</span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">pemeliharaan kerukunan umat beragama. </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Kata kunci: Agama, Pemuda, Komunitas</span></span></p> Gita Ajeng Effendy ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39771 Wed, 26 May 2021 14:50:37 +0000 MAKNA KAWIN-CERAI “MABENNYA’ AKABHIN, NAMBHEI PAJHU” https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39883 <p>This study intends to describe the symbolic interactionism of the phenomenon of "mabennya"<br>akabhin, nambhei pajhu ", which means that the more frequent marriages are increasingly in demand<br>because of the high number of divorces in Sumenep Regency, especially in Dungkek Village. The<br>objectives of this study are 1) Identifying the objective conditions of marriage. 2) Identifying the function<br>of marriage and divorce. 3) Identifying the views of the community on divorce and the position of the<br>divorced person. 4) Assessing the meaning of divorce. The approach used in this research is qualitative.<br>The theoretical basis used is George Herbert Mead's theory of symbolic interactionism. The informants<br>in this study were determined through purposive sampling technique. To collect data, the method used<br>was Spradley ethnography with in-depth interviews, in accordance with the research objectives. The<br>findings obtained from this study are: First, marriage is considered as a culture and part of the human life<br>cycle which is the basis for the formation of a family formed on the basis of marital responsibility and the<br>basic principles of marriage. Second, the function of marriage includes to get offspring, fulfill one's<br>desire, religion, foster a sense of responsibility and build a peaceful household. Meanwhile, the function<br>of divorce is used as a medium for terminating the marriage relationship for various reasons that are<br>legally acceptable. Third, society's view of divorce is seen as a way to break up a husband and wife<br>relationship for certain reasons in the hope that the child can still get the love that should be without any<br>shortcomings or until a broken home. The status of people who are divorced, both in themselves, in their<br>families and in society, can equally accept the status of widows or widowers because divorce has become<br>a common practice. People conceptualize themselves as "I" and "Me" in accordance with the stimulus<br>obtained to form a response in the form of an action consisting of symbols with various meanings of<br>gestures and language. Fourth, marriage and divorce are likened to dating people who are "on and off"<br>influenced by the old environment. It causes marriages to not last long, usually due to matchmaking,<br>underage, inadequate preparation for household, psychological, problem pressures, third people, and lack<br>of understanding, especially from Koran teachers and parents about the importance of marrying once<br>according to religious norms and norms law.<br>Keywords: Symbolic Interactionism, Divorce, In demand</p> Sinta Nuriyah ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/39883 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 MOTIF ATLET DARI KELUARGA MISKIN DALAM MENEKUNI OLAHRAGA HOCKEY DI KOTA SURABAYA https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40703 <p>Abstract<br>Hockey is synonymous with expensive sports because you have to buy a stick and a<br>protector which is quite expensive. Hockey that uses equipment that is so complex that it<br>costs a lot of money is also in demand by the middle to lower class. There are several hockey<br>athletes who are members of the Surabaya hockey branch training center (PUSLATCAB)<br>who come from a poor family background, even though this sport requires a lot of money to<br>fulfill the equipment and accessories while the income of the poor is only enough to meet<br>their consumptive needs. or even lack. By participating in this sport, they are required to<br>fulfill the equipment and sports equipment at a cost that is not small. The purpose of this<br>study is to identify the background and goals to be achieved by research subjects in pursuing<br>hockey. The method in this research is qualitative research using the phenomenological<br>approach of Alfred Schutz's ideas. Alfred Schutz's phenomenology is used to study the<br>because motive (cause motive) and in order to motive (objective motive) of informants who<br>are poor people in pursuing the sport of hockey. The results of the study were because the<br>informants' motive was involved in hockey because of their curiosity about hockey, being<br>motivated by other people and wanting to make their parents proud. Of course every action of<br>a person has a predetermined goal. in order to motive (goal motive) they want to pursue this<br>sport to gain achievements, continue their education, and become coaches to continue their<br>predecessors. Keywords: Poor Family, Hockey Sport, Social Motive.</p> Moch Rizal Efendy ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/paradigma/article/view/40703 Fri, 15 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000