Unesa Journal of Chemistry 2021-11-20T05:26:01+00:00 Chemistry Department Unesa Open Journal Systems <p><em>UNESA Journal of Chemistry</em>&nbsp;is published &nbsp;online 3 times a year (January, May and September) and covering all aspect of Chemistry, including :</p> <p>1. Analytical chemistry;</p> <p>2. Physical chemistry;</p> <p>3. Organic chemistry;</p> <p>4. Inorganic chemistry; and</p> <p>5. Biochemistry.</p> <p>The journal publishes original research papers and review articles. The paper published in this journal implies that the work described has not been, and will not be published elsewhere, except in abstract, as part of a lecture, review or academic thesis.</p> PENGARUH SUHU PADA SINTESIS MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMER (MIP) TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN ADSORPSI KLORAMFENIKOL 2021-11-19T07:57:10+00:00 Excel Aida Fransiska Maria Monica Sianita <p><em>The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of temperature on the synthesis of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) on the adsorption capability of cloramphenicol and for analyze the functional groups of the best polymers that were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) instrument. </em><em>In this research, MIP has been made with variations in temperature of 60<sup>o</sup>C, 70<sup>o</sup>C, and 80<sup>o</sup>C using the precipitation method with chloramphenicol (CAP) as the template, </em><em>ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate</em><em> (EDGMA) as a crosslinker, methacrylic acid (MAA) as a monomer, acetonitrile as a porogen, and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a initiator. The ratio of CAP: MAA: EDGMA is 1: 3: 18 with 30 mL of porogen acetonitrile. </em><em>The results showed that the temperature of 80<sup>o</sup>C resulted in the best Q adsorption of 4.286 mg/g with an Imprinting Factor (IF) value of 5.977 and percent of extraction of 96.66%. FTIR characterization showed that in Non-Imprinted Polymer (NIP) there was absorption of -NO<sub>2</sub> functional groups at wave number 1521.77 cm<sup>-1</sup>, while in MIP and blank polymer (PB) there was no absorption of -NO<sub>2</sub> groups.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Key words: </em></strong><em>Molecularly Imprinted Polymer, chloramphenicol, precipitation method, temperature</em></p> 2021-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## KANDUNGAN SENYAWA BIOAKTIF DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN BAWANG MERAH NGANJUK (Allium Cepa L.) 2021-11-19T07:57:10+00:00 Shela Insanul Hikmah Mirwa Adiprahara Anggarani <p><em>Nganjuk, East Java is a shallot producing area, but its potential as a medicinal and cosmetic plant has not been developed much, especially in the use of its bioactive compounds. The content of bioactive compounds is considered to be potential as antioxidants. This study aimed to determine bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Extraction of the samples used a multilevel maceration method with three types of solvents according to polarity, namely ethanol (polar), ethyl acetate (semi-polar), and dichloromethane (non-polar). The type of sample testing carried out is the measurement of bioactive compounds analysis and determination of antioxidant activity using the DPPH method. Flavonoid levels used the AlCl<sub>3</sub> method and for the determination of phenolic levels using the Folin Ciocalteu method. The results showed that Nganjuk shallot extract contained bioactive compounds of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, and quinones. The total flavonoid and phenolic levels were weak, namely 0,881% respectively, and 0,966%. Antioxidant activity is shown at the IC<sub>50</sub> values ​​of in the ethanol, ethyl acetate, and dichloromethane extracts were 384,0341 ppm; 5336,7889 ppm; 884,2754 ppm. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity of Nganjuk activity is very weak because the value of IC<sub>50</sub> &gt; 200 ppm. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Key words: nganjuk shallot, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity</em></strong></p> 2021-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## REVIEW: POTENSI SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan L.) DALAM TERAPI ARTRITIS REUMATOID 2021-11-19T07:57:12+00:00 Fauzia Indah Sabila Tukiran Tukiran <p><em>Artritis reumatoid (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by inflammatory mediators that migrate to synovial and particular tissues. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation that leads to the destruction of cartilage and joint damage. Although conventional treatments of AR&nbsp; such as NSAID, corticosteroid and DMARDs commonly alleviate the symptoms of&nbsp; AR, but&nbsp; the high edverse of these treatments leads AR patients toward alternative medicine. The purpose of the present review is to evaluate the potential of secang in rheumatoid arthritis therapy. Various phytochemical components of secang provide pharmacological effects such as antioxidant activity in suppressing oxidative stress as a promoter for disease, including inflammation. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritis activities of secang are able to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine regulation and cartilage degradation in AR. The pharmacological effect of secang has the potential to be used as a functional food or supplement in the therapy of AR by preventing, treating and repairing the damage caused by AR..</em></p> <p><strong><em>Key words: </em></strong><em>Anti-arthritis<strong>, </strong>Anti-infammatory, Anti-oxidant, Artritis Reumatoid, Caesalpinia sappan </em>L<em>.</em></p> 2021-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## REVIEW ARTIKEL: KARAKTERISTIK DAN PERANAN ENZIM LIPASE PADA PRODUKSI DIACYGLYCEROL (DAG) DARI VIRGIN COCONUT OIL (VCO) 2021-11-19T07:57:12+00:00 Emilisia Fatimah <p><em>Lipase enzyme is an acyl hydrolase that functions in the digestion and processing of fat. Lipase enzyme have activities that can hydrolyze various fats and oils, each one unit per mL (U/mL) of lipase enzyme activity can release 1 µmol of free fatty acids per minute. Lipase enzyme activity at optimum conditions obtained from measurements of enzymatic activity at modification of temperature and pH. Lipase enzyme can be found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a plant that produces lipase enzymes which can produce Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO). VCO can be converted into diacylglicerol (DAG) by hydrolysis or trans-esterification using chemical or enzymatic methods. DAG is a type of healthy oil that can reduce the content of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG) and become a plasminogen inhibitor.</em></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;Key words: Lipase, Diacyglycerol (DAG), Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO)</em></strong></p> 2021-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENGARUH KONSENTRASI KLORAMFENIKOL TERHADAP ADSORPSI POLIMER CETAK MOLEKUL DENGAN METODE PRESIPITASI 2021-11-19T07:57:12+00:00 Ainun Rachmatina Atqa Maria Monica Sianita <p><em>The aims of this study to synthesize Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) which can be used as adsorbents for chloramphenicol adsorption (CAP). The performance of the MIP adsorbent was tested for adsorption with variations in the initial CAP concentration.</em> <em>The CAP concentrations used were 10, 25, and 50 ppm.</em> <em>The characterization of the resulting MIP, Non-Imprinted Polymer (NIP), and Blank Polymer (PB) were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), to determine the -NO<sub>2</sub> group.</em> <em>The results showed that the greater the initial CAP concentration, the higher the adsorption capability in MIP and PB.</em> <em>The largest adsorption capability in this study for MIP was 16.54 mg/g and PB was 8.78 mg/g at a concentration of 50 ppm.</em> <em>MIP has a higher adsorption capability than PB due to the specific adsorption of MIP to CAP.</em> <em>The imprinting factor (IF) value obtained is 1.88.</em> <em>FTIR results showed the presence of –NO<sub>2 </sub>group at wave number 1560.62 cm<sup>-1</sup> in MIP with a lower intensity than NIP.</em> <em>This indicates the presence of CAP that has been eluted in the extraction process.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>Key words: Molecularly Imprinted Polymer, chloramphenicol, adsorption </em></p> 2021-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## REVIEW: IMOBILISASI ENZIM PAPAIN DENGAN SILIKA MESOPORI DAN KARAGENAN SEBAGAI BAHAN PENDUKUNG 2021-11-19T07:57:12+00:00 Kuala Wirida Wening Nuniek Herdyastuti <p><em>Papain is a protease enzyme obtained from papaya plant that able to hydrolysis protein into amino acid. Papain plays an important role in the industrial fields so generally papain immobilized on support material to maximize its function. This review is intended to describe the recent development of papain immobilized in silica mesoporous and papain immobilized in carrageenan. The method used was a literature review. The review of secondary data includes papain can be immobilized using one or more methods, like adsorption, cross-linking, entrapment, and covalent binding. Electrostatic interaction becomes the main driving force for papain adsorbed onto silica mesoporous or entrapped in carrageenan. FTIR (Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy</em>),&nbsp;<em>molecular docking</em><em>, and MD simulation (Molecular Dynamics) were used to analyze the presence of papain in the support material. The characteristics of the papain such as pH, temperature, activity, and repeated usage will change as a result of the immobilization process. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Key words: </em></strong><em>Papain enzyme, enzyme immobilization, silica mesoporous, carrageenan</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENGARUH LAMA PEMANASAN PROSES FERMENTASI TERHADAP KADAR FENOLIK TOTAL DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN BAWANG HITAM 2021-11-19T07:57:11+00:00 Alfiatus Solichah Nuniek Herdyastuti <p><em>Black garlic is the result of the fermentation process at certain intervals so that is dark brown and has a fresh sweet taste. When compared to fresh garlic, black garlic does not have a strong off flavor due to the heating process which reduces the allicin content which is converted into the antioxidant compound S-allyl cysteine. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of heating time fermentation process on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of black garlic. Measurement of total phenolic content using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and using the DPPH method to measure its antioxidant activity. The experiment was conducted with different heating length treatment at intervals of 0 – 15 days. The results showed that the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of black garlic increased with the length of heating time. The heating time had a significant effect (α = 0.05) on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity compared with garlic.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong><em>Key words: black garlic, total phenolic content, antioxidant </em></strong></p> 2021-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENGARUH SIRUP UMBI YAKON TERHADAP BIOAVAILABILITAS FE (ZAT BESI) RATTUS NORVEGICUS 2021-11-19T07:57:11+00:00 Alif Wildan Mohammad Leny Yuanita <p><em>Yacon roots syrup is a processed product with high FOS content. FOS is a prebiotic compound that can increase the production of SCFA. SCFA can cause the pH in the colon to decrease which results in the bioavailability of Fe. The purpose of this research were to determine the effect of Yakon roots syrup supplementation on the bioavailability of Fe and the relationship between SCFA and Fe bioavailability. There were 43 R. norvegicus that divided into 3 treatment groups, namely the intake of yacon roots syrup supplements, commercial FOS, and water with a treatment duration of 48 days. The feces from each group were dry digested and then tested using SSA to determine the Fe content. Data were analyzed through the Aova one way, post hoc, and Pearson product moment correlation with a significance degree of 5%. The results showed that the significance value of Yakon roots syrup on Fe bioavailability was 0.034 and SCFA for Fe bioavailability had a coefficient correlation of 0.834. This can be interpreted yacon roots syrup supplementation could increase and significantly affect the bioavailability of Fe and there is a strong relationship between total SCFA levels and the average percentage of Fe bioavailability. The higher the SCFA levels in the colon, the higher the bioavailability of Fe.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Key words : Fe bioavailability, FOS, yacon roots, SCFA</em></strong></p> 2021-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENENTUAN FENOLIK TOTAL, FLAVONOID TOTAL, DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK BAWANG LANANG (Allium sativum L.) 2021-11-19T07:57:11+00:00 Dhini Tri Wilujeng Mirwa Adiprahara Anggarani <p><em>Free radicals are unstable molecules that can cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can lead to damage to cells, tissues, and organs, which can lead to degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress can be reduced by increasing the body's immunity through antioxidants, where these antioxidants can be found in one of the natural ingredients, namely single bulb garlic. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of imported single bulb garlic with various solvents as a source of natural antioxidants based on total phenolic levels, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. The Follin-ciocalteu method was used to determine total phenol, total flavonoids were determined colorimetrically with AlCl<sub>3</sub>, and antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl) method. The results showed that the total phenolic extract of ethanol 96%, ethyl acetate, and dichloromethane were 13.77 (medium); 26.60 (medium); and 6.36 (low) mg GAE/gr extract. The total flavonoids of ethanol 96% extract, ethyl acetate, and dichloromethane were 0.97; 2.88; and 0.47 mgQE / gr extract. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activity (IC<sub>50</sub> value) for 96% ethanol extract was 339.69 ppm (weak), 174.03 ppm for ethyl acetate extract (medium), and 430.48 ppm for dichloromethane extract (weak). &nbsp;Based on the research results, it can be concluded that imported single bulb garlic with the three solvents have potential as a source of natural antioxidants, but the test results are no better than total phenolic, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of local single bulb garlic.</em></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Key words:&nbsp; Total Phenolic, flavonoid, antioxidant, single bulb garlic</em></strong></p> 2021-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## REVIEW: POTENSI EKSTRAK KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan L.) SEBAGAI ANTIDIABETES MELLITUS 2021-11-19T07:57:11+00:00 Ashari Kurniawan Sarjono Tukiran Tukiran <p>Diabetes mellitus is an acute metabolic disorder with several causes with symptoms such as high blood sugar volume accompanied by disorders of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism as a result of insulin function insufficiency. The use of synthetic hypoglycemic chemical drugs can cause some side effects and require relatively expensive costs, so traditional herbal medicine is preferred because it has less side effects and lower costs. Plants that can be used as traditional medicine are secang wood plants (Caesalpinia sappan L). Based on literature studies, compounds contained in the stem or wood part of secang contain flavonoid, tannins, gallic acid, resins, brasilein, α-phellandrene, oscimene, essential oils, resorcinol, and brasilin. It is known that tannic acid (tannins) has antioxidant activity and has an antidiabetic mellitus effects and the brazilin content of secang wood plays a very important role in reducing blood sugar levels. brazilin has three mechanisms of action in reducing blood sugar levels, namely reducing oxidative stress, inhibiting intestinal mucosa GLUT 2, and inhibiting phosphodiesterase. The antihyperglycemic activity of brazilin helps insulin work in the absorption of glucose from the bloodstream into adipose cells by increasing the translocation of glucose transport especially GLUT4. This shows that the extract from the secang wood plant has the potential as an antidiabetic mellitus.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Antidiabetic mellitus; Antioxidant; Hyperglycemic; Secang wood</p> 2021-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## STUDI ELEKTROKIMIA EKSTRAK BETALAIN UMBI BIT SEBAGAI PEWARNA ALAMI DSSC (DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL) 2021-11-19T07:57:11+00:00 Elma Alfianti Indri Lestari Pirim Setiarso <p><em>This research was conducted to explore and utilize fresh beetroot as raw material for natural dyes in DSSC. DSSC (Dye Sensitized Solar Cell) is a photovoltaic cell that can convert sunlight into electricity using environmentally friendly raw materials and low production costs. In this study, DSSC was made using the doctor blade method using natural dyes derived from betalain tuber extract. beet. Natural dyes were chosen because they are easy to obtain, as well as cheap and environmentally friendly. The betalain from the beetroot is macerated with ethanol as a solvent. Characterization of natural dyes was carried out using UV-Visible spectrophotometry to determine the wavelength absorption, electrochemical characterization of dyes was carried out using cyclic voltammetry, and to determine the efficiency of the DSSC was carried out by I – V characterization. In this study, an absorption wavelength of 534 nm was produced which showed the uptake of the pigment betasianin. The electrochemical characterization showed that the energy of the HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital) in the dye was -5.00 eV. The LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) energy in dye is -3.71 eV. Analysis of the energy bandgap (energy gap) of the dye yields 1.29 eV, meaning that the prepared dye can be used as a sensitizer on the DSSC. I-V characterization showed that the efficiency value of DSSC with natural dye for beetroot was 0.004%. These results indicate that the natural dye extract of beetroot betalain can be used as a natural dye in DSSC.</em></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Key words: betalain,DSSC,</em></strong><strong><em>electrochemical</em></strong></p> 2021-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENENTUAN TOTAL FENOLIK, TOTAL FLAVONOID DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK DAUN BAWANG KUCAI (Allium tuberosum) 2021-11-19T07:57:11+00:00 Jihan Shofwatul Islam Dalilah Aziz Mirwa Adiprahara Anggarani <p><em>The purpose of this research was to determine total phenolic, total flavonoid and antioxidant activity of chinese leeks extract. The extraction process involves a method of leveling using three different types of solvents are dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol 96%. The samples tested included analysis of total phenolic using Folin-Ciocalteau method, total flavonoid using colorimetric aluminum chloride method and antioxidant activity using DPPH method. The results showed that dichloromethane extract was not found phenolic and flavonoid compounds that are potential as antioxidants. Total phenolic content in ethyl acetate and ethanol extract were 9.5975 mg GAE/g extract and 11.8015 mg GAE/g extract. Total flavonoid content were 4,3454 mg QE/g extract and 7,7165 mg QE/g extract. The value of IC<sub>50</sub> on ethyl acetate extract were 563,1250 ppm and and ethanol extract 312,5532 ppm, which are categorized as weak antioxidant.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em> <em>chinese leeks, total phenolic, total flavonoid, antioxidant activities</em></strong></p> 2021-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENGARUH VARIASI KOMPOSISI EKSTRAKTAN TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN ADSORPSI KLORAMFENIKOL MENGGUNAKAN MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMER (MIP) 2021-11-19T07:57:10+00:00 Eucharistia Oktavia Firda Listiadi Maria Monica Sianita <p><em>The aim of this study is</em> <em>optimazing</em><em> the extractant composition </em><em>of </em><em>methanol:acetic acid was with variations of 90:10(v/v), 85:15(v/v), and 80:20(v/v) in the </em><em>(Molecularly Imprinted Polymer- Chloramphenicol) </em><em>MIP-CAP synthesis. MIP-CAP is obtained from</em><em> (Non Imprinted Polymer)</em><em>NIP through the template extraction process. The template was extracted using maceration method and analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to determine the extracted CAP. The best extractant composition variation was determined based on % extraction and adsorption capability. The characterization of the MIP-CAP polymer was carried out using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) to see the presence of the –NO</em><em><sub>2</sub></em><em> group. In this study, the best composition of methanol:acetic acid extractant was 80:20 (v/v) (20% acetic acid) with extraction % gain of 89,5158% and adsorption capability of 4,0725 mg/g with the value of Imprinting Factor (IF) of 3.7369. The higher the addition of acetic acid, the higher the % extraction and adsorption capability. The FTIR characterization of MIP-CAP showed that there was no absorption of the –NO</em><em><sub>2</sub></em><em> group</em><em>.</em></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Key words: </em></strong><strong><em>CAP, MIP-CAP, Composition of Extractant</em></strong></p> 2021-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENGARUH SUHU TERHADAP KANDUNGAN FENOLIK TOTAL DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN BAWANG PUTIH BUBUK DAN BAWANG HITAM BUBUK 2021-11-19T07:57:10+00:00 Ika Novianti Safitri Nuniek Herdyastuti <p><em>Black garlic is</em><em> a </em><em>fresh garlic product that has been heated for two weeks at a controlled temperature (65-90<sup>o</sup>C). Black garlic has a different color, smell, and taste than fresh garlic. High moisture content of garlic and black garlic make these foods spoil easily. Oven drying techniques can extend the shelf life of garlic. T</em><em>he purpose of t</em><em>his research </em><em>is</em><em> to determine the effect of drying </em><em>temperature </em><em>on total phenolic</em><em> content</em><em> and antioxidant activity </em><em>of</em><em> garlic powder and black garlic powder. Garlic and black garlic are to be dried at 60, 70, 80, and 90<sup>o</sup>C. Total phenolic </em><em>content </em><em>was determined </em><em>by</em><em> Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and antioxidant activity was measured </em><em>by</em><em> 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The results </em><em>of this reasearch </em><em>showed that the best drying temperature for garlic was 60<sup>o</sup>C which had total phenolic </em><em>content</em><em> 0,178 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and moderate antioxidant activity with IC<sub>50</sub> value 105.01 ppm; while the best drying temperature for black garlic was 80<sup>o</sup>C which had total phenolic </em><em>content</em><em> 2.957 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and strong antioxidant activity with IC<sub>50</sub> value 67.32 ppm</em>.</p> <p><strong><em>Key words: black garlic, garlic, phenolic, antioxidant</em></strong></p> 2021-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ANALISIS SENYAWA BIOAKTIF DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK BAWANG PUTIH (Allium Sativum L.) PROBOLINGGO 2021-11-19T07:57:10+00:00 Lailatul Wakhidah Mirwa Adiprahara Anggarani <p><em>Garlic is a plant from the Allium genus which is found in the mountainous area of Probolinggo. The potensial bioactive content of this local product has not been studied to be developed in the development of garlic product diversification. This study aims to see the bioactive components, phenol content, flavonoid levels, and antioxidant activity in Probolinggo garlic tubers.&nbsp;The method in this research is divided into two parts, namely the extraction process and sample testing. The extraction process uses a multilevel method with three kinds of solvents, namely dichloromethane (non polar), ethyl acetate (semi polar), and ethanol (polar). The sample tests carried out included analysis of bioactive compounds, phenol levels using the Folin Ciocalteu method, flavonoid levels using the AlCl3 method, and antioxidant activity using the DPPH method. The results of the research on Probolinggo garlic tuber extract with dichloromethane and ethyl acetate solvents containing bioactive steroids and triterpenoids, while ethanol solvent contains bioactive compounds of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, triterpenoids and phenolics. Garlic tuber extract with ethanol solvent has a total phenolic value of 28,</em><a href="tel:756"><em>756</em></a><em>&nbsp;mg GAE / g and total flavonoids of 21,</em><a href="tel:601"><em>601</em></a><em>&nbsp;mg QE / g. The IC50 values ​​in the extracts of dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol were&nbsp;</em><a href="tel:421.9643"><em>421.9643</em></a><em>&nbsp;µg / mL,&nbsp;</em><a href="tel:310.5998"><em>310.5998</em></a><em>&nbsp;µg / mL,&nbsp;</em><a href="tel:257.7503"><em>257.7503</em></a><em>&nbsp;µg / mL, respectively. In terms of the components of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, triterpenoids and phenolic, garlic tuber extract has a very weak antioxidant activity value.</em></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords : </em></strong><em>garlic tubers, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity.</em></p> 2021-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PENGARUH SUHU KALSINASI TERHADAP UKURAN KRISTAL DAN KOMPOSISI FASA PADA SENYAWA TiO2 2021-11-20T05:26:01+00:00 Amos Tigor Tobing Dina Kartika Maharani <p><em>TiO</em><em>2 or commonly called Titanium dioxide is a semiconductor transition metal. This metal is commercially shaped white powder. This material is often used in research into the development of photocatalysts effects in material. TiO</em><em>2 is used in paints as compounds that give rise to self-cleaning properties. This property is the nature of a material to clean itself from impurities. Self cleaning works with the help of the photocatalyst effect, which is where with the help of photon energy. Therefore semiconductor material can be used in these properties. This is because Titanium dioxide is a semiconductor compound which has a band gap energy of 3.2 eV for the anastase phase, and for the rutile phase of 3.0 eV. This study aims to determine the effect of calcination temperature on the characteristics of TiO</em><em>2 compounds. In this research, TTiP is a precursor of TiO</em><em>2 synthesis, and the method used is the sol-gel method. After synthesis, TiO</em><em>2 is calcined at 400</em>°<em>C, 450</em>°<em>C, 500</em>°<em>C, and 550</em>°<em>C. The characterization carried out in this research is to use the Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) instrument that functions to determine the functional groups formed and the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) instrument which functions to determine the phase composition of the compound. From the research that has been carried out obtained functional groups -OH, Ti-O, and Ti-O-Ti. This shows that TiO</em><em>2 was successfully formed through the sol-gel method. In the phase analysis, the results showed that TiO</em><em>2 is in the anastase phase. This shows that TiO</em><em>2 can function well when applied to photocatalysts</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>: Titanium Dioxide (TiO</em><em>2), Calcination Temperature, photocatalysts, Self cleaning</em></p> 2021-11-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##