Unesa Journal of Chemistry 2022-07-01T08:21:08+00:00 Chemistry Department Unesa Open Journal Systems <p><em>UNESA Journal of Chemistry</em>&nbsp;is published &nbsp;online 3 times a year (January, May and September) and covering all aspect of Chemistry, including :</p> <p>1. Analytical chemistry;</p> <p>2. Physical chemistry;</p> <p>3. Organic chemistry;</p> <p>4. Inorganic chemistry; and</p> <p>5. Biochemistry.</p> <p>The journal publishes original research papers and review articles. The paper published in this journal implies that the work described has not been, and will not be published elsewhere, except in abstract, as part of a lecture, review or academic thesis.</p> Pengaruh Lama Fermentasi Umbi Gembili (Dioscorea esculenta L.) dengan Kultur Starter Lactobacilus plantarum B1765 Terhadap Produksi Fruktooligosakarida 2022-07-01T08:21:08+00:00 Nur Wanda Aini Natasya Prima Retno Wikandari <p><strong><em>A</em></strong><strong><em>bstract</em></strong><strong>.</strong>&nbsp; <em>Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are additives that are often used and utilized in the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries that have functional value for health. Lactobacillus plantarum B1765 has been known to have inulinase activity. This research aimed to further explore the potential of L.plantarum B1765 in the production of FOS from lesser yam tuber inulin by looking at the total growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the degree of polymerization (DP) during a certain fermentation time. The duration of fermentation was carried out for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The testing of Total LAB using total plate count (TPC) method with&nbsp; MRS Agar medium. The Testing determination of total sugar and reduction sugar using the Nelson Somogyi method. Determination of the degree of polymerization (DP) of the formed FOS is based on the result of dividing the total sugar formed with the reducing sugar released during the fermentation process. The results of total LAB that grows from each fermentation time is 2,11×10<sup>7</sup>; 1,55 ×10<sup>8</sup>; and 3,3 ×10<sup>9</sup> CFU/mL, with degree of polymerization formed from each fermentation time are 3,470; 2,286; and 1,740. Comercial FOS has a DP value of 3-5. </em><em>This study was able to produce a commercially acceptable fructooligosaccharide with a DP of 3,470, which could be used for industrial development of fermented lesser yam tuber fructooligosaccharides.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Key words: Lactobacillus plantarum </em>B1765<em>, lesser yam tuber, inulin, FOS, degree of Polymerization</em></strong></p> 2022-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## REVIEW ARTICLE: POTENTIAL SOURCES OF FRUCTOOLIGOSACARIDE AND INULIN LOCAL FOOD MATERIALS AS PREBIOTICS 2022-07-01T08:21:08+00:00 Farindya Dwi Cahyaningtyas Prima Retno Wikandari <p><em>Prebiotics are a component of food that cannot be digested by human digestion, but can be used as growth nutrients for the intestinal microflora and can provide health benefits. Inulin and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are types of prebiotics that are widely developed for now. This review aims to determine (1) the potential of inulin and FOS as prebiotics, (2) lactic acid bacteria that can grow on inulin and FOS, and 3) the potential of local food as a source of inulin and FOS. Inulin and FOS are prebiotics because they have β(2-1)&nbsp; bonds so that they have resistance to hydrolysis by acids and enzymes found in the digestive tract and can only be utilized by the intestinal microflora. The results of inulin and FOS metabolism by lactic acid bacteria are able to provide health benefits such as lowering cholesterol and blood sugar levels, lowering blood pressure and inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Inulin and FOS can be utilized by several strains of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum B1765, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacilus acidophilus, Leuconostoc mesentroides, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium longum. Inulin and FOS can be found in easily found local foodstuffs such as sweet potatoes, arrowroot, gembili, yam, garlic, dahlia tubers and taro, can be used as growth media for several strains of lactic acid bacteria and provide several health effects so that they can be used as alternative sources of prebiotics</em></p> 2022-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ARTIKEL REVIEW: PEMANFAATAN KATALIS ABU CANGKANG PADA REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI MINYAK JELANTAH MENJADI BIODIESEL 2022-07-01T08:21:08+00:00 Ervina Retnaningtyas Indarwati Samik Samik <p><em>This review article about the use of a catalyst derived from shell ash in the transesterification reaction of used cooking oil into biodiesel. The preparation of this article was carried out using a literature study by reviewing research articles. Biodiesel is a subtitute for reneable fuels, environmentally friendly and can replace diesel. Biodiesel is generally produced using a transesterification reaction is slow so that a catalyst is needed that can speed up the reaction. CaO catalyst can be obtained from shell ash that has been calcined at the certain temperature which can produce metal oxides. The highest metal oxide content in shell ash is CaO in the range of 81,09% to 93,16% using a calcination temperature in the range of 700<sup>o</sup>C to 900<sup>o</sup>C. Used cooking oil is cooking oil that has been used in the frying process for many times and has been damaged due to hydrolysis, oxidation, and polymerization processes. Based on the results of the literature study, it can be seen that the CaO catalyst from egg shell ash, snail shells and blood clam shell produced. The higest %yield biodiesel in the transesterification reaction of used cooking oil, which was 99,738% which came from egg shell ash. These result are influenced between alcohol and oil ratio of 12 : 1, the amount of 7% CaO catalyst, and transesterification reaction temperature of 70<sup>o</sup>C. </em></p> 2022-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pengaruh Lama Fermentasi Terhadap Karakteristik Minuman Probiotik Sari Tomat dengan Kultur Starter L. plantarum B1765 2022-07-01T08:21:08+00:00 Essa Febriana Prima Retno Wikandari <p>Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu mengetahui pengaruh lama fermentasi terhadap karakteristik mikrobiologi (total BAL), kimia (pH dan TAT), fisik (viskositas dan stabilitas), serta organoleptik (warna, rasa, dan aroma) pada minuman probiotik sari tomat dengan kultur starter <em>L. plantarum </em>B1765. Fermentasi dilakukan selama 0, 6, 18, dan 24 jam. Total BAL diukur menggunakan teknik TPC. pH dan TAT masing-masing diukur menggunakan pH meter dan titrasi asam basa. Viskositas dan stabilitas masing-masing diukur menggunakan viskometer Ostwald dan pengukuran tinggi endapan terpisah. Sedangkan organoleptik menggunakan uji hedonik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lama fermentasi berpengaruh terhadap total BAL, pH, TAT, viskositas, stabilitas, serta rasa dan aroma, namun tidak berpengaruh terhadap warna. Total BAL meningkat 1 log <em>cycle </em>dari 2,08 x 10<sup>7</sup> CFU/mL menjadi 1,93 x 10<sup>8</sup> CFU/mL. pH menurun dari 4,14 menjadi 3,30 dan TAT meningkat dari 0,0046% menjadi 0,0104%. Viskositas dan stabilitas mengalami peningkatan dari 0,00347 kg/ms menjadi 0,00437 kg/ms dan 0,13% menjadi 0,41%. Nilai rata-rata tingkat kesukaan panelis terhadap warna, rasa dan aroma masing-masing yaitu 3,33; 2,67; dan 2,93 yang menunjukkan kecenderungan pada parameter suka. Waktu fermentasi terbaik pada minuman probiotik sari tomat adalah 18 jam. Produk hasil penelitian ini berpotensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai produk minuman agen probiotik <em>L. plantarum</em> B1765.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Kata Kunci : </strong>minuman probiotik, sari tomat, karakteristik produk, <em>L. plantarum </em>B1765</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Abstract.</strong> The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of fermentation time on microbiological characteristics (viability of LAB), chemical (pH and acidity), physical (viscosity and stability), and organoleptic (color, flavor, and smell) probiotic drink of tomato juice. &nbsp;Fermentation was carried out for 0, 6, 18, and 24 hours. Viability of LAB was measured using the technique of TPC. pH and acidity were measured using a pH meter and acid-base titration, respectively. The viscosity and stability of each was measured using Ostwald viscometer and high deposition measurements separately. While organoleptic using hedonic test. The results showed that the length of fermentation effect on viability of LAB, pH, acidity, viscosity, stability, flavor and smell, but doesn’t affect the color. Viability of LAB increased by 1 log cycle from 2.08 x 10<sup>7</sup> CFU/mL to 1.93 x 10<sup>8</sup> CFU/mL. pH decreased from 4.14 to 3.30 and acidity increased from 0.0046% to 0.0104%. Viscosity and stability increased from 0.00347 kg/ms to 0.00437 kg/ms and 0.13% to 0.41%. The average value of panelists preference level of the color, flavor, and smell of each are 3,33; 2,67; and 2,93, which showed on parameters like. The best fermentation time for probiotic drink of tomato juice is 18 hours. The product from this research has the potential to be developed as a beverage product for the probiotic agent <em>L. plantarum</em> B1765.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords : </strong>probiotic drink, tomato juice, product characteristics, <em>L. plantarum </em>B1765</p> 2022-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The THE EFFECT OF HARVEST TIME ON TOTAL FLAVONOID CONTENT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF YACON LEAF ETHANOL EXTRACT (Smallanthus sonchifolius) 2022-07-01T08:21:08+00:00 Uci Nur Rohmah Leny Yuanita <p><em>Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) contains active ingredients in the form of flavonoids. The active ingredients of flavonoids have pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant. The formation of flavonoids in yacon leaves is influenced by the time of harvest. The study was conducted to determine the effect of harvest time on total flavonoid content and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract of yacon leaf at 4, 6, and 8 months harvest time variations. Yacon leaf extraction process using maceration method. Determination of total flavonoid content in ethanol extract of yacon leaf using a colorimetric method, while testing anti-inflammatory activity using protein denaturation inhibition method. The results showed that harvest time affected total flavonoid content and the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract of yacon leaf. The highest total flavonoid content was obtained at 8 months of harvest, which was 5,366 QE/g. The anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract of yacon leaf showed positive results, with an average inhibition value of more than 20% for each harvest time. The best IC<sub>50</sub> value is found in yacon leaf with a harvest age of 8 months, which is 29,829 ppm.</em></p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>harvest time, flavonoids,</em><em> anti-inflammatory, </em><em>ya</em><em>con leaf</em></p> 2022-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##