Unesa Journal of Chemistry https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/unesa-journal-of-chemistry <p><em>UNESA Journal of Chemistry</em>&nbsp;is published &nbsp;online 3 times a year (January, May and September) and covering all aspect of Chemistry, including :</p> <p>1. Analytical chemistry;</p> <p>2. Physical chemistry;</p> <p>3. Organic chemistry;</p> <p>4. Inorganic chemistry; and</p> <p>5. Biochemistry.</p> <p>The journal publishes original research papers and review articles. The paper published in this journal implies that the work described has not been, and will not be published elsewhere, except in abstract, as part of a lecture, review or academic thesis.</p> Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Surabaya State University, located at Jl Ketintang, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia en-US Unesa Journal of Chemistry 2252-8180 REVIEW: PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL WITH TRANSESTERIFICATION METHOD USING CATALYST MADE FROM WASTE BONE https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/unesa-journal-of-chemistry/article/view/47055 <p><em>Among various renewable energy sources, biodiesel is a promising candidate to replace fossil fuels. Biodiesel is produced from the transesterification reaction</em><em> of oil or fat with alcohol</em><em>. The transesterification reaction requires a suitable catalyst. There are two kinds of catalysts, namely homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Heterogeneous catalysts have several advantages, including being easy to separate and can be reused without going through many processes.</em> <em>Currently, many natural materials are used as</em><em> raw material for</em><em> heterogeneous catalysts,</em><em> such us</em><em> bone. In this article, we will discuss the manufacture of biodiesel with a catalyst from </em><em>various </em><em>bone waste</em><em> such as cow, goat, sheep, chicken, fish and ostrich bones</em><em>.</em> <em>Based on the results of a review of several articles, it was </em><em>known</em><em> that the catalyst from bone which has the highest biodiesel yield comes from fish bone which is calcined at a temperature of 997.42 <sup>o</sup>C for 2 hours, the catalyst can produce a biodiesel yield of 97.73%.</em><em> With the reaction conditions: ratio of moles of oil : methanol of 1 : 6.27, weight of the catalyst 1.01% of the mass of oil with a reaction that lasted for 5 hours at a temperature of 70 <sup>o</sup>C.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Key words: </em></strong><strong><em>biodiesel, transesterification, catalyst, waste bone</em></strong></p> M. Iqbal Al Ghifari Samik Samik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 12 1 1 11 10.26740/ujc.v12n1.p1-11 a REVIEW: SYNTHESIS OF BIODIESEL WITH HETEROGEN CATALYST FROM MOLLUSCA ANIMAL SHELLS https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/unesa-journal-of-chemistry/article/view/47057 <p><em>Energy is a very important need in human life. Most of the energy needs that humans need are supplied from non-renewable natural resources such as oil, natural gas and coal. The solution given is to replace it with biodiesel. Biodiesel is an alternative energy based on plants and animals. Sources of vegetable oil can be obtained from rubber seeds and cooking oil. Rubber seeds contain about 40-50%-w vegetable oil with the dominant fatty acid composition being oleic acid and linoleic acid, while the rest are palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid and other fatty acids. Catalysts derived from several shells showed that the yield value of the highest shellfish was in green mussels with a yield of 90.1% with a reaction temperature of 65<sup>o</sup>C for 4 hours with a catalyst weight of 5% of the weight of biodiesel..</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: Calcination, Transesterification, Mollusca</em></strong></p> Mukhlash Imaduddin Samik Samik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 12 1 12 19 10.26740/ujc.v12n1.p12-19 Penentuan Suhu Terprogram Optimum pada Analisis Asam Lemak Hasil Ekstrak Mikroalga Chlorella Menggunakan Instrument GCMS https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/unesa-journal-of-chemistry/article/view/49952 <p><em>Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) column temperature is one of the variables that must be considered in the analysis of chemical compounds, so that the compounds are appropriately separated. This study aims to determine the optimum programmed temperature for fatty acid analysis using the GCMS instrument. The fatty acid samples used were derived from the extract of Chlorella microalgae. Chlorella microalgae extraction was done by sonication for 60 minutes using hexane as solvent. The GCMS programmed temperature variations were carried out, namely the temperature increase was 5 <sup>O</sup>C</em><em> /minute, 7 <sup>O</sup>C</em><em>/minute, 9 <sup>O</sup>C</em><em>/minute, 12 <sup>O</sup>C</em><em>/minute with an initial temperature of 80 <sup>O</sup>C</em><em> and a final temperature of 270 <sup>O</sup>C</em><em>. The number of samples injected was 0.2 </em><em>m</em><em>L. The data from the analysis is processed by comparing the retention time and analysis time. It was found that the optimum condition for the programmed temperature measurement was the initial temperature of 80 <sup>o</sup>C and an increase of 9 <sup>O</sup>C</em><em>/minute to a temperature of 270 <sup>O</sup>C</em><em> with an analysis time of 21.1 minutes. The fatty acids in Chlorella microalgae extract are palmitic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid. By using this measurement method, the analysis time is shortened and the expected compounds can be identified properly</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Analysis, GCMS, programmed temperature, fatty acids, Chlorella microalgae</em></p> surani surani Cahyo Pujiasmoro Asep Kadarohman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 12 1 20 25 10.26740/ujc.v12n1.p20-25 POTENCY OF EUGENOL COMPOUNDS FROM CLOVE (Syzygium aromaticum) AS HIV-1 PROTEASE (PR) INHIBITORS https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/unesa-journal-of-chemistry/article/view/52025 <p><em>Syzygium aromaticum is a medicinal plant that is well known for its uses in the medical world. This plant contains essential oil that has a lot of bioactivitis, namely eugenol. This study aims to determine the potency of the compound eugenol and its derivatives as an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease (PR), an HIV-1 antiviral candidate. The ligands used in this study were eugenol, methyl eugenol, acetyl eugenol, and isoeugenol. The results showed that the compound acetyl eugenol has the potential to act as an HIV-1 protease inhibitor better than other eugenol derivatives because it has a lower binding affinity value (-6.2 kcal/mol) of the other compounds. Further studies such as in vitro and in vivo tests are needed to prove its activity as an HIV-1 protease.</em></p> Ahmad Misbakhus Sururi Dina Kartika Maharani First Ambar Wati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 12 1 26 30 10.26740/ujc.v12n1.p26-30 MAKING OF MODIFIED ZEOLITE OF HEXSADESILTRIMETYLAMONIUM (HDTMA) FOR N SLOW RELEASE FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS https://ejournal.unesa.ac.id/index.php/unesa-journal-of-chemistry/article/view/51964 <p><em>This study aims to determine the release of nitrogen levels in fertilizer samples by varying the ratio of zeolite volume to cationic surfactant mass and knowing the chemical characterization of FTIR. In this study natural zeolite and hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) were used as the main ingredients. Fertilizer production in this study by activating natural zeolite using 1M HCl then added surfactant HDTMA 0.05M with a ratio of 1: 1, 1: 3, 1: 5, then added a 0.05M NaNO3 solution as a nitrogen source which then tested slow release on land for 7 days. The results of the chemical characterization of FTIR showed a band shift in activated zeolite, HDTMA modified zeolite (1: 1), and ZMS (I). The release of nitrogen levels on day 0 of ZMS (I) was smaller than 0,00059% but on day 7 the nitrogen release was smaller in zeolite activated by 1.3339% compared to ZMS (I) which on day 7 was 1.625% .</em></p> Tidora Juliana Worisio Dina Kartika Maharani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 12 1 31 35 10.26740/ujc.v12n1.p31-35