PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH PADAT PROSES SINTESIS PEMBUATAN FURFURAL DARI SEKAM PADI SEBAGAI ARANG AKTIF (UTILIZATION OF SOLID WASTE OF FURFURAL SYNTHESIS PROCESS FROM RICE HUSK AS CARBON ACTIVE)

  • Farhan Fikri Safi'i Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural sciences State University of Surabaya
  • Mitarlis Mitarlis Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural sciences State University of Surabaya

Abstract

Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik arang aktif dari limbah
padat proses sintesis furfural berbahan dasar sekam padi. Penelitian ini terdiri dari 2 tahap,
tahap pertama adalah persiapan limbah padat, tahap kedua adalah pembuatan dan
karakteristik arang aktif. Persiapan limbah padat dilakuakan dengan cara mensintesis furfural
dari sekam padi dengan metode refluks. Pembuatan arang aktif dilakukan dengan karbonasi
pada suhu 300OC dan aktivasi menggunakan H2SO4, HCl dan H3PO4. Karaktersitik arang
aktif dilakukan dengan uji kadar air, kadar abu, daya adsorpsi terhadap I2 dan penentuan
gugus fungsi menggunakan FT-IR, hasil yang diperoleh dibandingan dengan SNI No. 06-
3730-1995 dan teori. Dari uji karakteristik diperoleh % kadar air arang aktif tanpa aktivator
5,06%, dengan aktivator H2SO4, HCl dan H3PO4 masing-masing 4,75; 0,687%; dan 0,42%.
% Kadar abu arang aktif tanpa aktivator 62,1%, dengan aktivator H2SO4, HCl dan H3PO4
masing-masing 41,5%; 29,6%; dan 60,56%. Daya adsorbsi arang aktif I2 tanpa aktivator dan
dengan aktivator H2SO4, HCl dan H3PO4 masing-masing 105,82mg/g; 219,120mg/g;
225,660mg/g; dan 207,311mg/g. Hasil spektra FT-IR arang aktif yang dhasilkan memiliki
spektra yang hampir mirip dengan teori yaitu pada arang aktif terdapat pita serapan pada
bilangan gelombang 3434,05-3424,51 cm-1 muncul vibrasi ulur pada gugus O-H. Vibrasi ini
didukung pita serapan pada bilangan gelombang 1620,52-1630,15 cm-1 merupakan vibrasi
C=C. Pada bilangan gelombang 1696,66-1099,39 cm-1 merupakan vibrasi C-O. Dari hasil
penelitian karakter yang sesuai dengan SNI No. 06-3730-1995 hanyalah kadar air. Nilai kadar
abu dan daya adsorpsi terhadap I2 belum sesuai dengan SNI, dikarenakan masih banyaknya
pengotor berupa senyawa anorganik pada arang aktif yang dihasilkan.
Kata kunci: karakteristik arang aktif, limbah padat furfural, sekam padi
Abstract. The aim of this research is to know the characteristic of active carbon from solid
waste of furfural synthesis process from rice husk as raw materials. This research concis of
two processes. The first process is solid waste preparation while the second process is making
and defining the characteristic of active carbon. Solid waste preparation was done by
synthesizing furfural from the rice husk by reflux method. Active carbon making was done
by carbonating with temperature of 300oC and activating using H2SO4, HCl and H3PO4.
Defining of carbon active characteristic was done by water percentage test, ash percentage, I2
adsorption capacity and functional groups determination using FT-IR. The result was
obtained was compared with theory and SNI No. 06-3730-1995. Characteristic result was
obtained the active carbon water percentage without activator is 5,06%, while using H2SO4,
HCl and H3PO4 activator is 4,75; 0,687%; and 0,42%. Ash percentage without activator was 62.1%, while using H2SO4, HCl and H3PO4 activator were 41,5%; 29,6%; and 60,56%. I2
adsorption capacity without and using HCl, H2SO4 and H3PO4 activator were 105,82mg/g;
219,120mg/g; 225,660mg/g; and 207,311mg/g. The result of FT-IR carbon active spectra was
similar with theory that is at the carbon active spectra has absorption band at the wavelength
3434,05-3424,51 cm-1 occur stretching vibration. This vibration is supported with absorption
band at the wavelength 1620.52-1630.15 cm-1 was C=C vibration. At the wavelength
1696.66-1099.39 cm-1 was C-O vibration. From the result of this research, the characteristic
that appropriating with SNI No. 06-3730-1995 is the percentage of water only. The value of
ash percentage and I2 adsoprtion capacity is not appropriate with SNI yet, caused by the
presence of polluter as anorganic substance in the caron active roduced.
Keywords: carbon active, furfural solid wate, rice husk

Author Biographies

Farhan Fikri Safi'i, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural sciences State University of Surabaya

Mitarlis Mitarlis, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural sciences State University of Surabaya

Published
2013-05-24
Section
Articles
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