Peran Dinas Kesehatan Sipil (Burgerlijke Geneeskundigen Dienst) Dalam Penanganan Epidemi Pes di Jawa Timur Pada Tahun 1910-1916
At the beginning of the 20nd century the Dutch East Indies was hit by a disease disaster, the disaster was the plague epidemic. This plague epidemic attacked first time in the East Java Province,at the beginning of its arrival caused many victims. In East Java, which was the first area to be infected with the palgue epidemic , the total number of victims was nearly 36.000 people. From the large number of the victims, it can be seen that this disaster is a serious disease disaster, from 1910-1916 various eefforts were also made by the colonial government to overcome this plague epidemic. One of which is the realization of the separation between the Burgerlijke Geneeskundigen Dienst (BGD) with Militaire Geneeskundigen Dinest (MGD) whic is the institution that specifically handles civil society health. Research with the theme of history of health is important to do to find out the health condition of the people during the Dutch East Indies period, especially during the arrival of a major epidemic. Research on health history is also still minimal, so this research is carried out. Conducting in this reasearch, there are four stage of historical reasearch that are passed, the first is heuristic process which is the stage of collecting sources from primary sources in the form of archives belonging to the Dutch East Indies colonial government, the reports of the Burgerlijke Geneeskundigen Dienst (BGD) and Dienst der Pesbestrijding and also the newspapers reporting of the plague epidemic in East Java in 1910-1916, the Medayu Agung Library and interviews with resources persons who have conducted research on the plague epidemic in Java. The second stage is critized of the sources which is a test and verification of the sources that have been obtained, this criticism is carried out internally and externally to the archives, in addition comparisons were also made between these archives with similiar writings. The third stage is interpretation, which is in this stage is interpreting the sources after being verified with the help of social and political sciences. The fourth is historiography, in this stage is the writing of history chronologically and analitically based on the research theme that has been selected. This study will discuss (1) How the beginning of the outbreak of the plague epidemic in East Java ini 1910’ (2) How the policies adopted by Burgerlijke Geneesundigen Dienst (BGD) in handling the plague epidemic in East Java in 1910-1916; (3) How the role of Burgerlijke Geneeskundigen Dienst (BGD) in carrying out handling of the plague epidemic in East Java in 1910-1916. The results of the study is revealed that the origin outbreak of the plague epidemic was from the rice import activities carried out by the colonial government, where the rice was contaminated with the plague bacteria. Due the import activities, then the plague spread which was later designated as an epidemic by the colonial government. With this determination, Burgerlijke Geneeskundigen Dienst (BGD as an intitutions that responsible for the health of civil society must take a role. This role through the polices making such as research and treatment, quarantine/isolation, vaccination and disinfection and the issuance of autonomous institutions, this was carried out as a form of the role of Burgerlijke Geneeskundigen Dienst (BGD) in dealing with the plague epidemic in East Java in 1910-1916 which was carried out directly and indirectly role.
Keywords: Plague Epidemic, Burgerlijke Geneeskundigen Dienst (BGD), East Java