PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN ADITIF ALKIL NITRAT YANG DISINTESIS DARI BIODIESEL MINYAK BIJI KAPUK (Ceiba Pentandra) TERHADAP KENAIKAN ANGKA SETANA SOLAR THE EFFECT OF ADDITION ADDITIVE ALKYL NITRATE SYNTHESIZED BIODIESEL VALUE OF KAPUK SEEDS OIL (Ceiba pentandra) INCREASE OF CETANE NUMBER OF SOLAR

  • EKO CAHYONO

Abstract

Abstrak. Telah dilakukan penelitian dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik Alkil nitrat yang disintesis dari biodiesel minyak biji kapuk serta pengaruh penambahannya terhadap kenaikan angka setana solar. Penelitian ini terdiri dari dua tahap yaitu: 1) Tahap sintesis alkil nitrat dari biodiesel minyak biji kapuk. Pembuatan biodiesel minyak biji kapuk sesuai dengan penelitian [1], sedangkan sintesis aditif alkil nitrat dilakukan dengan cara menambahkan biodiesel minyak biji kapuk ke dalam campuran pereaksi asam nitrat dan asam sulfat selama 4 jam  pada temperatur 10-15 oC. Karakterisasi gugus fungsinya menggunakan instrument Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) dan dianalisis secara deskriptif dengan membandingkan data FTIR metil ester sebelum nitrasi dan sesudah nitrasi 2) Peningkatan angka setana solar setelah  penambahan alkil nitrat  dengan variasi volume  alkil nitrat terhadap solar sebesar 0%, 0,5%, 1%, 1,5% dan  2% dianalisis menggunakan  analisis varian satu arah. Karakteristik alkil nitrat diketahui mengandung gugus nitro dan nitrat yang ditunjukkan oleh spektrum serapan pada bilangan gelombang 1545 cm-1 dan 1638 cm-1. Peningkatan angka setana solar setelah penambahan alkil nitrat sebanyak  0%, 0,5%, 1%, 1,5%, 2%, berturut-turut ialah 0; 1,18; 2,01; 2,62; 3,46. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data diketahui bahwa: 1) Karakteristik gugus fungsi alkil nitrat menunjukkan adanya gugus nitro dan nitrat, 2) Penambahan alkil nitrat pada solar berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kenaikan angka setana solar.

 

Kata Kunci: alkil nitrat, biodiesel minyak biji kapuk, angka setana

 

Abstract. Research has been conducted in order to determine the characteristics of alkyl nitrate synthesized from cotton seed oil biodiesel as well as the effect of the addition to the increase in diesel cetane numbers. The study consisted of two phases: 1) Phase synthesis of alkyl nitrates from cotton seed oil biodiesel. Manufacture of cotton seed oil biodiesel according to research [1], while the additive synthesis of alkyl nitrates is done by adding cotton seed oil biodiesel into the reactant mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid for 4 hours at a temperature of 10-15 oC. Characterization of the instrument cluster functions using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and analyzed descriptively by comparing FTIR methyl ester of data before and after nitration. 2) Increasing the cetane number of diesel after the addition of alkyl nitrates with alkyl nitrates volume variation of the solar at 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Characteristics of alkyl nitrate is known to contain nitro groups and nitrate indicated by the absorption spectra in the wave number 1545 cm-1 and 1638 cm-1. Increasing cetane number of diesel after the addition of alkyl nitrates as 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, a row is 0; 1.18; 2.01; 2.62; 3.46. Based on the results of data analysis found that: 1) Characteristics of alkyl groups showed nitrate and nitrate nitro groups, 2) Addition of alkyl nitrate in diesel significant effect on the increase in cetane number of diesel.

 

Keywords: alkyl nitrate, synthesized biodiesel value of kapuk seeds oil, cetane number

Published
2014-01-30
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